||35th NACDA Convention|
June 11-14, 2000
All NACDA Members
Diversity Speakers Forum
Wednesday, June 14, 8:30 - 10:00 a.m.
It is my pleasure to introduce Alfred White. You can tell who's in the Southern Conference if you look in the front row. He must have sent a memo to his people to not only be here, but also make certain they are front and center. That says a lot about their respect for Alfred.
I want Alfred to take time to introduce a very distinguished panel that has joined us today to talk about diversity. At this time, it's my pleasure to introduce the Commissioner of the Southern Conference, Alfred White.
Good morning everyone. Thank you Dave, for that very kind introduction. I'm very honored to be a part of one of the flagship presentations for the 2000 NACDA Convention, the 35th Anniversary Convention.
Today, I think our subject matter deals with some good news and some bad. The first is the bad part. According to the latest NCAA Report on Race Demographics, diversity within collegiate athletics departments hasn't changed much during the last four years. The latest figures show the percentages of minorities in athletics administration has increased only by 1.5 percent over four years. In 1995-96, minorities represented 10.8 percent of the total athletics department staff, while in the just completed 1999-2000 year, minorities represent 12.3 percent.
During this time, the total number of athletics administrators has increased from 14,172 to 19,124. In whole numbers, the number of minorities has climbed 53.1 percent over the last four years from 1,530 to 2,343 in 1999.
Now for the good news. There are a lot of people that are concerned about this slow trend in progress. There is a common concern for the lack of diversity in the sports culture including the patterns, speech actions, artifacts and icons associated with sport in America beyond the playing fields and courts.
There is evidence of recognizing the need for and execution of promoting the ideals of diversity, integrity, sportsmanship and teamwork among the organizations and individuals that participate in athletics; providing services that address the needs of minorities professionally, emotionally, financially and physically in athletics; encouraging its members to participate in community outreach that promote moral, ethical and educational values; enlightening the general public, media, institutional educators and athletics administrators to the fact that athletics participation is good for young people. Working with the legislative arms of various governance groups in athletics on issues that affect minority participation in athletics, in particular, identifying issues that not only benefit the student-athlete, but also the ability of the athletics administrators and coaching staffs to work effectively and beneficially within the field.
We are very fortunate to have with us today three individuals whose efforts on this issue have stimulated the kind of change that will signify the true spirit of equity and diversity athletics administrators can be proud of in years to come.
Anita DeFrantz, a 1976 Olympic rowing Bronze medallist; in 1980, an Olympic teams member; is an attorney and the president and member of the board of directors of the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, which managed southern California's Olympic endowment for the 1984 Olympic Games. Anita was named to the International Olympic Committee in 1986. Her term of office will last until 2032. In 1997, Anita became the first woman in the 103-year history of the IOC to be elected as vice president. In 1980, she was awarded the Olympic Order by the IOC.
She also continues to serve the sport of rowing as vice president of the International Rowing Federation. Anita has been named one of the 100 most powerful people in sports by the Sporting News seven times and one of the most powerful women in the world by Australian Magazine.
Richard Lapchick is the founder and director for the Center for the Study of Sport in Society. The Center has helped form the National Consortium for Academics in Sports, sometimes known as NCAS, a group of more than 186 colleges and universities that has adopted the Center's programs. The Consortium helps run the degree completion programs for the NBA and the NFL. Richard serves as president and CEO of the Consortium.
Richard has written 10 books and is a regular columnist for the SportsBusiness Journal. Richard has appeared numerous times on "Nightline," "Good Morning America," "Face the Nation," "The Today Show" and other network news shows.
Ron Stratten is vice president for education services for the NCAA and oversees the education outreach, professional development, research, sports sciences and youth program staffs for the association. The Education Services Group serves the membership through programs that encourage the development of and opportunities for student-athletes, youth and staff. It provided resources, education and training, career planning, scholarships and research support.
Prior to joining the NCAA, Ron was president of Stratten Consultant Group and assisted business, educational and governmental clients in creating a more effective work place. Ron has also been in a senior training association with Blanchard training in development and president of Pace Sports, a career counseling organization for amateur and professional athletes.
At this time, we'll hear some presentations from our three panelists and then we will open the floor for questions. We do have mikes on the floor that each one of you can use. Let's start with Anita.
Thank you. I'm going to take the world's perspective and speak for just a few minutes about the International Olympic Committee. In 1994, we held a worldwide congress to take a look at what had happened over the 100 years of the International Olympic Committee's life. We had a working group to review the results of that congress. In 1996, we resolved to take action on what had happened in the area of women. Women, in particular, because on the issue of race, it's not an issue. We're a worldwide organization and, for example, in other parts of the world race is not an issue. Race is an issue in our country for a lot of historical reasons. I was brought up believing that humans are the only race in the world and color has to do with people's constructs.
Anyway, back to the subject before the International Olympic Committee, the subject was why more women are not involved in sport. We found that while the playing field was more level, not completely level, but more level, than the decision-making board, the IOC resolved during our session before the Games in Atlanta, there should be at least 10 percent of every policy-making board made up of women by the year 2000; at least 20 percent of any decision-making board in sport by 2005. The IOC itself met that goal in 1998. We're monitoring how the National Olympic Committee and the International Federations have done. I will say to you that in 1998, the National Olympic Committee hadn't done particularly well. I believe that only 36 percent of them had moved women into their executive committees. So far this year, 80 percent had women involved in some way, which is great progress. On the executive boards we found only about 50 percent. We're working very closely with them.
The French NOC moved to expand their executive board. Isn't that clever? They couldn't find a way to get women elected, so they just expanded the executive board. They might have taken heed from a certain ad which said, "Just do it". It may not be the way, but it's a way.
In the world of International Sports Federations, many of those boards are arguably more difficult to find ways to elect women because National Federations elect through to International Federations. National Federations often are elected through clubs. You have to have clubs elected to the national and then the nationals get elected to the internationals so there are several barriers. We found that, likewise, International Federations have to decide that we have to do it.
The International Federations have been even better about just doing it than the National Olympic Committees. We have had great success with the International Federations. One of the ones that received an award from the International Committee was basketball. They have women representatives from every continent on their executive council. We're moving forward very well with the International Federations. I think we're going to have 90 percent compliance with the International Federations and I hope we'll have 90 percent compliance by December 31 this year with the National Olympic Committees.
It may sound like it's just on paper, but for a worldwide organization to make this commitment is very important. We've also not only made the commitment in the policy-making arenas, but on the field of play during the Games you'll see in Sydney, every sport on the program women will compete in except for boxing and wrestling.
One hundred years ago when women first competed in the Games, women only competed in two sports. Now, women will compete in all but two sports. That's remarkable progress. Most of that progress came in the last 25 years with team sports, which were the most difficult and the most important for women to compete in. Team sports were the last barrier for women. Why, I don't know. Team sports seem to be the most difficult for women to compete in, but possibly, the most important.
The IOC has made a commitment to make sure that women are a part of sport. I want to point out that race is not an issue because people are people in the rest of the world. Everyone has something to contribute to the world of sport. We also take a look at whether the National Olympic Committee has had women competing in the Games. Two teams had only women competitors in Atlanta. If you're interested, I'll tell you later.
We take a look at these things. We work with the National Olympic Committees. We've worked with the International Federations. We want there to be opportunities for athletes throughout the world for National Olympic Committees to make sure that women and men have opportunities.
I'll close by saying, in the world of sport, we believe that women hold up half the sky. Women have not held up half the sky in the world of sport and we need everybody holding up half that sky. We hope that in the world of sport in the United States, that women and men will work together holding up the sky.
Now, Ron Stratten will share some thoughts about intercollegiate athletics.
I'm not going to tell you anything new. What Alfred shared with you at the beginning of the program is very disturbing. It poses some significant challenges for our association. The challenge regarding diversity is a national issue, but it's a personal challenge for each one of you.
I don't know that we're going to solve this challenge unless we take it on as an individual process and commitment. One of the ways this can take place is through looking at competence. We, in an association, have made significant selection choices with regard to our hires as a result of our relationships. This Convention is a classic example of more than 2,000 administrators coming together. One of the things I hear consistently is getting a chance to see and visit with colleagues that you don't see for the rest of the year.
We had a Fellows Graduation last night, which is a program we run at the NCAA. It enhances getting more people into that pipeline. We heard one of the fellows indicate that, at this Convention last year, an opportunity arose through a relationship developed through this program.
Those relationships are very important, but as administrators, one of the things we have to do is get beyond that. As long as that's happening, we are not doing well with regard to inclusion and access for minorities and women in collegiate athletics. We have tremendous participation numbers, but as role models and modeling the type of society our students are going to be involved in for the rest of their lives, we are not doing very well.
The NCAA is working with the Minorities, Opportunities and Interest Committee and the Committee on Women's Athletics to bring to you, as administrators, another way to do business. That is to base that on competency, coming back out to you and talking to you. We discuss the benchmarks, the characteristics that all great administrators have. What are they? Many of you can name those items. We're going to come back out to you over the next six to eight months so we can benchmark those characteristics. We would then like to start building those characteristics in individuals who may or may not possess them at this point.
The end product of what we want to do is for you, as folks who select most of your coaches and your presidents and boards of trustees who ended up hiring you, to look at a different criteria. We want you to suspend the relationships as the predominant way we deal with things. One of the problems is that everyone has a short list, but we want to get everyone away from the short list and give them a long list. We want to give them a very deep list of qualified minority women candidates to go along with that list of their own.
That's going to take some work on our part and it's going to take suspension of the way you do business to accept this new way. We're working with TMP Worldwide who owns a small company called Monster.com. They have agreed to work hand-in-hand with our committees and with me to develop a different process for all of you. It will be very inclusive and the greatest opportunity for you to find the most qualified candidates for your positions. It's going to take you to getting exactly what you want in a candidate. Sometimes your selection committee can do that, but oftentimes, it's a difficult process to combine experience and skills that you need. We're really excited about that opportunity.
As many of you know, African-Americans, particularly, are participating for women only in basketball and track and field; men in basketball, track and field and football. There is a low representation of people of color in any of the other sports. We have a program to introduce our young kids of color into a different non-traditional sport that they might be able to learn more about. We're doing that associated with our conference YES Clinics. We're trying to provide people with the opportunity to get into the pipeline as participants, as well as coaches and administrators.
We're going to have a leadership institute that we hope will be working. NACDA and NACWAA are very interested in this. We, at the NCAA, along with the Minorities, Opportunities and Interests Committee, are trying to pull together a place where we can get very good developmental opportunities. NACDA has been doing some of that work. They have not, until now, talked about targeting minorities into that situation, but now that's what they're doing. It's one of the things we want to work with them on. We think it's a wonderful way for us to start to give you more opportunities for choices. I was the first African-American football coach in the United States at a Division I school in 1972. We haven't got very many more in the year 2000. We certainly are not in double digits in terms of Division I head coaches in this country and the number of participants certainly has risen since then.
We've got a lot of work to do and we've got to do that in a targeted fashion. It can't be generalized where we look at this room and say we've got to increase the percentage of minority participation within this room. You've got to do that personally at your institution. You've got to take that into consideration if we are going to provide the kind of educational experiences for our student-athletes that we need to and in a higher education setting.
Richard has done a lot good work to monitor the actions of various organizations in sports on diversity and he has some general comments on that as well.
Thank you very much and good morning. I got a different perspective on diversity when I attended in consecutive weeks two years ago, the Women's Sports Foundation Annual Conference and then the Black Coaches Conference. It happened that a day before the Women's Sports Foundation meeting, Casey Jones was hired as the head coach of the Hartford Franchise in the previous ABL, the first women's sport league in basketball that recently met its demise.
I'd say about half the people there were upset because a woman had not been hired for that position, being that it was a women's professional basketball league. When I went to the Black Coaches Association meeting, the black coaches were ecstatic that a black coach had been hired in that position. I think that one of the issues when we talk about diversity dimensions is how we can bring women and people of color together to work together toward the same end as much as possible and not have this feeling of not winning if one is selected and winning if another is.
I'm supposed to be the academic on this panel. I want to start by saying that the last thing I am is a dispassionate observer of sports. My earliest memory as a five-year-old boy was looking outside my bedroom window in Yonkers, New York, where I was raised, and seeing my father's image swinging from a tree with people under the tree picketing. For several years after that, picking up the extension of the phone when my father didn't know it, hearing "nigger lover, nigger lover." I didn't know what any of it meant except that a lot of people didn't like this man who to me, was the sun, the moon and the stars. My father, as some of you know, was Joel Lapchick, who was then the coach in 1950 of the New York Knickerbockers and signed the first black player to play in the NBA. That's what the calls were about and that's what the picketing was about when he signed Sweetwater Clifton.
Thus began my journey on the issue of race and sports. People of color, obviously, face racism in society and the world of sports is part of our society. It presents us with an opportunity to have an ideal playing field that we're not going to reach in a lot of other areas, because we do come together on those playing fields. We meet each other and understand. The fact that NACDA is having these sessions is important because it's showing that we are confronting those challenges.
We all know the value of playing sports, but I'm not sure how many of us in this country understand that the lack of people of color in our front offices, in our college athletics departments, people who are running sports, starts at that youth sport level. If you are a young child in a city in the United States, you have 15 percent of the opportunities that a suburban child has to play youth sport. If you don't get into the pipeline to be a participant in sport, you're not going to have the opportunity to go up through those ranks and become a college athlete or a college athletics directors.
Most people think that colleges give the best shot for equal employment by race and gender. We monitor, as Alfred said, the racial and gender hiring practices at both college sport as well as professional sport, and it's a sad, but true statement that college sport is behind all of the professional sports in terms of racial and gender hiring practices.
It's also discouraging at the playing level. According to the most recent NCAA data, African-Americans dropped as student-athletes in overall Division I from 21.5 percent of all student-athletes in 1995 to only 18.8 percent in 1999. Even in the revenue sports, there was a drop from 47.5 percent to 45.3 percent. I am aware that the percentage of white athletes has also dropped. I'm not so concerned about those white athletes' future, because there is a safety net around white students on our campuses that doesn't exist for African-American students. If they don't have this opportunity to play, they're not going to get the chance to go to college at all.
How are we allowing those numbers to drop at a time when the public thinks those numbers are spiraling upwards as they have been in their minds for more than two decades now? The reality is that both in college and professional sports, we're at the lowest point of African-Americans playing those sports at any point since 1992.
How are we doing on the hiring practices level? Alfred gave you some general statistics. I think since this is a meeting of our athletics directors in the United States, there's no more critical number we can look at that only 2.4 percent of all Division I athletics directors are African-American. There are 12 men of color in total in all of Division I who are athletics directors. There's not a single African-American, Latin American, Asian American or woman who an athletic director in Division I. In Division II 93.3 percent of the athletics directors are white in Division III, 95.6 percent of the athletics directors are white.
In other words, of the 948 NCAA schools in the most recent survey, there are five women of color as athletic directors and 40 men of color. That's a total of only 28 African-American athletics directors out of 948 jobs. The numbers overall in all three divisions have gone up slightly in the past five years. They stand at 2.9 percent overall for black athletics directors, up slightly from 2.7. In the critical Division I, the percentage has actually dropped by more than 30 percent in that time, not increased.
As minority coaches and administrators move up and apply to our schools, move up in ranks and get near the level of athletics directors, a lot of people are wondering what people who look like me are thinking about them. They wonder how we're going to find them. If we don't have the type of network that we get at conferences like this where we have a change to meet each other, the opportunities are going to be increasingly diminished and that's why coming to conferences like this are so important. It helps athletics directors and people who are in decision-making positions meet people that they might not otherwise come across.
Many times young African-American, Latino, Native American and Asian-American coaches and administrators wonder if they're going to be treated differently when they get on the college athletics staffs. I was at the Black Coaches Convention a couple of weeks ago and posed a question of Bobby Knight. I didn't mean this as a slam against Bobby, I've known him for almost 39 years when he used to sit in my house and listen to my father. Would Bobby, if he was an African-American coach have survived all these years on our campuses? I think it's a question we need to think about as we look at these things. Who's coming up in the ranks? Only 7.4 percent of the senior athletics administrators holding the title of associate and assistant ADs are people of color.
At the coaching level, we're doing better. In Division I men's basketball, the number of African-American coaches has gone up from 17.4 percent to 21.6 percent. In Divisions II and III, however, we've dropped to below 10 percent of African-American coaches in both divisions.
As far as football goes, all I have to do is tell you that I was lucky enough to co-author the autobiography of Eddie Robinson with Coach Robinson. What more do we need to know about college football than the fact that Eddie Robinson, the winningest coach in the history of college football, who has sent more players to the NFL than any other coach in the history of college football, who graduated more than 80 percent of his student-athletes over a 56-year career, was never interviewed for a job at a predominately white institution. He was not only not offered a job, but was never even interviewed for a job.
Ron talked about the percentages and they are dropping again in Division I football coaches; 4.8 percent of head football coaches were African-American in 1995. In 1999, the numbers dropped to 2.9 percent. Not only were they not getting job offers, but African-Americans were also not getting interviewed for most of the openings in Division I-A.
We can go through the statistics in the other sports and we'd see similar trends, but what we have to be most concerned about is how do we change this? What do we do for the future? Unless you, in your communities, activate the community service programs that many of you have to also help create opportunities for those young people to play sports, they're not going to get into the pipeline at all. I encourage you to do that.
We know that when people of color get on our college campuses as student-athletes, their chances of graduating are significantly higher than other students of color. If we can get young student-athletes to our campuses, the chances of them getting a degree and moving into that pipeline where they can participate in your athletics departments is significantly enhanced.
We are going to hold a conference, bringing together decision-makers in the world of sport together with all of the professional organizations representing women and people of color. There is a feeling in athletics that we need to look inside our own houses of athletics departments and professional leagues for future employees. There are people out there who are working as accountants, lawyers, etc., who would love to be in the world of sport and don't know how to enter those areas. We're going to try to bring together those professional organizations representing all of those groups with people like yourselves so that you can meet them and understand the opportunity does exist.
Once we find different people, that's what the next session will look at, it's not just a matter of getting the numbers to change, it's a matter of getting attitudes to change. Our athletics departments need to look differently and learn to understand each other better. We need to apply the principle of teamwork in our athletics departments on these diversity issues. The differences that people have between different racial groups, ethnic groups and genders can be building blocks for success for our athletics departments. We know that now. We know that managing diversity is not a moral issue anymore, it's a business issue. We also know that we have a lot more in common than we understand about each other. That's where diversity management training can help us to understand those things.
Sweat really has no race or gender and that's the hope that all of us working in the world of athletics have. We can create an image in American that, so far, unfortunately, hasn't been created in other parts of society.
Thank you very much.
I have written some questions that I've heard throughout this Convention. Are there any questions from the floor?
Hallie Gregory from the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore. In regards to the numbers you have as far as athletics directors, administrators, did you take into account historical black institutions into the numbers that produce administrators?
The racial report card presents them both ways. The numbers I gave excluded the historically black numbers. I looked at predominately white schools and I apologize for not mentioning that earlier.
Ron, one of the questions I've heard is what is the definition of diversity in intercollegiate athletics?
We've been looking at value and diversity as valuing and embracing difference, being able to look at different perspectives as well as different origins, to be able to appreciate the uniqueness of each individual. As we've done our diversity programs, we have placed it in an area in which we're looking at value and diversity and preparing people to go back to their institutions and talk about the value that diversity brings to our society as well as to our departments.
We're looking at that as an inclusionary issue around how people are unique and different and how we embrace that.
Anita, in the Olympic community, I think you touched on it briefly, how the Olympic community devotes most of its attention toward women. What about people of color in other countries around the world?
I guess because we're a world community, it's really not an issue. There's one race, the human race. There are two genders, male and female. That's why we had to deal more with the issue of gender than the issued of race. The race is not an issue. There are different countries. There are 199 recognized national Olympic Committees, and each committee has to deal with issues within its boundaries as we do in the U.S. The U. S. Olympic Committee has its own set of issues to deal with. We have the issues of race within our country and we have to deal with that.
If you look at the U.S. Olympic Team that will proudly put on its uniform and represent the United States in Sydney, and you look at the leadership and team leaders and the make up of who the coaches and administrators are and ask, does that represent who the athletes are? You may find yourself wondering does it really represent our country? You can come to your own judgements at the end of the Games.
To me, the Games are a celebration of human excellence. That's what makes us all embrace the Games, watch them, read about them, look forward to them. You never know what you're going to see. You'll see an athlete you never heard of before and remarkable stories will unfold. You'll learn about someone from this country or from another country. You'll learn about what that athlete has gone through. It's about humanity. It's about a person reaching out to you. We get to learn about them and embrace that part of humanity and we've learned from that person. Our children's dreams are enhanced.
That's what we all love about sports and appreciate. Each of us has been enhanced by seeing someone do something special. Maybe we've coached or helped someone in some way and then we see it on the grander scale. We're made better people for it.
Ron, can you talk about some of the things the NCAA and the intercollegiate athletics sector are doing in general to stimulate diversity?
Division II has set aside dollars for an enhancement program which is going to launch this year. They have set aside dollars for grants to a variety of institutions to assist in their development strategy in enhancing diversity in Division II.
Division III is looking at that because I think it's going to move in the same direction. We're working with Division I to figure out ways to look at that diverse population and see if we can't get their governing body as a whole, to figure out concrete ways in which we can create diversity there.
As I mentioned earlier, our NYSP program is dealing with trying to get more students a broader experience in athletics so that they can participate more broadly. We have dollars set aside to start to develop some clinics or workshops around these competencies. One of the competency issues is what are they and how can we define them in a way in which we can develop them? By next summer we hope to have put in place a program that would allow us to identify core competency of leadership in athletics and then be able to provide workshops to try to develop that competency.
These are all programs that the Minorities Opportunities and Interest Committee is working on. Do they have any programs coming down the pike that would be of interest for the group to hear about?
No, that's where our focus is right now. We've got a number of things we're trying do to raise awareness at Division I particularly, but association-wide. The things that are concrete and being placed right now are around providing enhancement dollars to provided folks to get more knowledge and more skill.
One of the things I think is when you take it personally or try to figure out what you're going to do to enhance someone on your own staff's abilities. We did a program sometime ago called Breaking the Glass Ceiling. Many of you might have read that book. It's a very good diversity book. We followed up that book with another one called New Leaders, Guidelines on Leadership Diversity. In that book, we did some of the largest research in the business world on the area of what's going on in terms of diversity and development of individuals.
One of the things that was critical was to look at a major electronic corporation. We gave them some ideas on how they could do that. Once of the programs they had in place that was successful was identifying high potential minority and female employees and managers. We tried to give those individuals opportunities to grow. These were targeted opportunities to develop the skills they need. The minorities and the women within their own organization never got those good opportunities and the same individuals got the promotions.
As a result, the CEO said to them that they needed to target this. He made it the number one priority for him. When he walked into a room to talk to senior leaders, he asked them what they were doing about this today. He tied the movement and development of individuals to their compensation. In other words, he said it was important to him, therefore, you will not participate in the bonus pool at the end of the year if you haven't developed women and minorities in your group. That got everyone's attention, as you can imagine.
I encourage off you to take a look at this as well.
Anita, you talked about how the Olympic Committee has made a special effort to incorporate more women on committees. Are there any other initiatives the Olympic Committee is doing to promote more diversity in the Olympic community?
We had a working group on women in sport. It's a working group, not a commission, because we want to work our ways out of a job. We don't want to be there forever. We don't want to have a niche for women's issues. We want it to be integrated fully, I hope in another couple of years.
The working group develops strategies. We've had regional conferences, which have been wonderful. We get together on a regional basis with women and men. We always have men at the group. It's absurd to think you can do this alone. The whole point is getting people to work together.
We bring together, on a regional basis, the women and men who are interested in developing opportunities to help people understand that you need some training, but it's not impossible to learn. You already have some skills. It's a matter of doing some networking, communicating, and having some reinforcement, to know that you're not alone and getting things going.
It's a wonderful thing to be able to travel the world and share experiences and to know the people want to give to sport and want to be a part of building sports opportunities for others. These regional conferences are putting together networks, making sure that, in the future, other people will be there to make sure that other people have opportunities.
From the Floor
I'm from Springfield Technical Community College in Springfield, Massachusetts. It's an urban community college. We're trying to better reflect the community we operate in and we are generating better numbers.
I would urge you to look at your community-based organizations. Take your issues and make it a community issue. Start talking out loud about your intentions on what you would like to have happen. I wouldn't just go to the schools, but take it to the community as a community issue. You might get good support and get people's awareness about what your desires are.
I have a real job with the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. We work with community-based groups. We're working in parts of the city that has nothing for kids and develop sports clubs. We've taught people how to manage clubs. We've actually found that once people are empowered, they take on anyone. They've taken on city council and been able to say what they want. They want physical education back in the schools. They helped get physical education standards back in the L.A. unified school district as part of the programming. It is very important to get to the community-based organizations. They can be very helpful. Some of those coaches and moms and dads and the kids can be very helpful.
We've been using some of the older kids as coaches and officials. They eventually come back. Some of the kids we've had in our programs have been able to get scholarships and have gone on to college. Two of them are back coaching. One of them has gone into the pro circuit and coaching. A lot of this works from a community-based program.
From the Floor
One of our institution's objectives over the last four or five years is to diversify our faculty both in terms of female faculty members and assistants, as well as people of color. We have two frustrations and have been able to make a lot of in-roads there. Number one, we have had a difficult time in an applicant pool identifying who the minority candidates might be. Affirmative Action data statements are confidential and are not to be included in that. There's a strategy on how we might be able to identify and look very carefully at those applications that might be from minority candidates.
Secondly, what are the suggestions for increasing the percentage of minority applicants in our pools? Many of us might not have pay scales as attractive as a major university. We don't have the research dollars available. How can we become more attractive to minority candidates? How do we identify those candidates within the pool?
There are quite a few people in this room who have called our office asking if we could help them find somebody with a particular profile of experience and degrees in the hopes of increasing their department's diversity. Frequently their request is in marketing. We call the National Black MBA Association, the type of professional organization I referred to before. I tell them this school is looking for somebody with five years experience with a Master's Degree in Business Administration, with direct experience in marketing. Invariably, they end up sending to the school a list of between 15 and 20 people. In almost all cases, those people have been hired by the institution.
That is exactly on point with what we're trying to do with this project. We are trying to develop a pool that will address your issue and provide you an opportunity to choose from a large number of resumes. We want to bring in all of our athletics communities into that pool. According to competencies and your desire to look around for other opportunities, those things will be made available to you.
Through this process, we're trying to take what Richard's been doing and what many of you have been doing in terms of being resources for other folks. We want to bring all of that into a centralized, consolidated fashion, so that we might be able to respond more easily and get you more candidates.
You'd be surprised how many people would be interested in going to different place if they only knew the opportunity was available. Many of us don't get that opportunity to know what's available.
My name is Tanya Rush from Morgan State University. I'd first like to commend this organization for the forward thinking and making this issue a priority at this meeting. I'm encouraged by the number of people here today who are, I hope, taking this beyond head knowledge to heart knowledge. Some change could take place.
My question is regarding certification. As we move to the second cycle of certification, it was very clear, in our experience, that there are a number of institutions that have not made any progress. How, then, will the certification process in the next cycle encourage institutions to make a difference?
I don't have enough knowledge, but we have committee members. The issue with regards to certification has to be accountability. The first cycle, people said we have intentions to do, we'd like to do. Those things now have to be done. I don't know what membership services and compliance will do with that. We're trying to give minority people opportunities by submitting guidelines for our institutions on ways they can meet their compliance issues. Whether the institution internalizes that and then actualizes that is another issue. I don't know. I feel that's accountability and we've got to figure out ways in which you comply or don't comply with some of the things people are asking us to do.
We've got a number of places like that. Diversity is a critical one on our campuses if we are to prepare our young people to go out into the world. Does your campus reflect the society in which you live? I'm not sure they do and we ought to be held accountable for that.
I'm sorry I can't respond more than that.
Again, my name is Hallie Gregory from University of Maryland-Eastern Shore. I graduated from college in 1962. I was the first black head coach in the state of South Dakota. I was the first black civilian coach at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy.
Looking at this from another perspective, there are a lot of qualified individuals that could coach and be better administrators on campus. If you really want to find good coaches and administrators, they are out there. You could certainly find me to go out and play football, track and basketball in the '60s and late '50s. Now, we're saying in the year 2000, that we cannot find qualified individuals. I don't think so. I think they are there. If you really want people on your campuses, you can find them. Some will be good and some will be bad, as with any other ethnic group. They are there.
Make a commitment to go out and do it and then do it. It can be done. If you want to make that commitment, you can find them. Thank you.
From the Floor
Richard, you heard Ron talk about what the NCAA and intercollegiate athletics is doing to stimulate and promote diversity and you heard Anita talk about what the Olympic Committee is doing. In your monitoring issues, can you talk about some of the better jobs to promote diversity?
First of all, if the month of dot.com initiatives is as successful as we hope it will be, it will probably have the most development in this area. Several organizations, including ours, have tried to piece-meal what your intentions are there. If you have the capabilities of the Internet, it will change everything in terms of diversity.
The best organization in sport that has handled it in the most positive way has been the National Basketball Association. When David Stern became commissioner, he let everybody on the different teams in the NBA know that the entire staff and our front offices are very different in terms of women and people of color. They have been the statistical leaders, not only in numbers of women and people of color in organizations, but in terms of the levels of those people in the offices.
The NBA became the first pro sports organization to put everybody in the league through diversity management training. Their examples are what organizations can do.
Key Marshall, Grandhpol College, Minorities, Opportunities and Interests Committee member. I want to give you an update on some of the things we're trying to do. I just got back from the Black Coaches Association Meeting. We're also starting a new minority administration association. It will join forces or run parallel with the Black Coaches Association to be able to identify minorities and women for athletics and coaching positions.
The MOIC is going to start in the fall, along with Ron, trying to get out to the conferences, whether it be I, II and III and meet with some of the athletics directors, presidents and conference members to stress upon them the need to diversify their staffs and starting at the conference level.
MOIC has also looked at, but has not yet seen, a response from the NCAA about trying to have some sanctions looked into if you don't pass the second part of certification. That's rather a touchy issue right now. There are some progressive activities.
I would urge anyone who does not know how to contact some minority folks to get in touch with some MOIC folks or someone in the Development Office at the NCAA. Or, contact any African-American that you know in this meeting or other meetings to contact and find out about people wanting positions.
One of the things the executive committee has asked our staff to do is to start to develop better information on what's going on at your campuses. Many of you probably have already seen the reference to ethnicity in sports sponsorship forms that came out recently. We want to start to identify who is participating. We've got a number of different ways in which my research staff develops that kind of information. The sports sponsorship form was another way we felt we could respond to what the executive committee was asking us to do.
I urge you to fill out that information as it comes to you.
Richard, did you have any specific opinions about the initiatives that college athletics has and maybe the Olympic Community has about stimulating diversity?
There's a momentum that's been picked up in terms of addressing these issues. I don't think there's any questions about that. The fact that the numbers have been declining, and if we look inside the organization, even though the USOC has people who are in a leadership position there, it's mostly people who look like me. Even though we're addressing it more often, the net results still have yet to be what a lot of us would like them to be.
As the gentleman said before, people are out there. You've got to look. Don't just put an advertisement in the NCAA News and hope you're going to get a diverse group of people applying for those positions. You have to be committed to aggressively go out and look for people. It does take work, but I agree the people are there and would like to be doing what a lot of people in this room are doing.
Anita, can you talk about national governing bodies in general and any efforts you've observed as far as taking on diversity?
I can talk about them, but I can't say much about efforts to stimulate diversity. That's one area where I don't think anything is happening in that arena. National governing bodies of sport have the responsibility of administering their sport in this country. I don't know how familiar folks are with the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 and the fight between the NCAA and the AAU. Does that sound familiar in here? No? Good.
That was a big battle and the NCAA won. National governing bodies of sport were created. They had to be independent. The USOC currently funds them. The new leadership of the USOC has said that within another year, the gravy train will be over and you will have to show yourself being worthy of our funding and you'll only get between $100,000 and $250,000 per year. Some governing bodies were getting guaranteed over one million dollars per year.
Things are changing. Maybe this is the time you have to show you are committed to diversity training and diversity within your governance. Right now, the only commitment is to show that you can bring home medals. Now might be an interesting time.
Ron, can you talk about diversity as a problem for student-athletes? Perhaps the NCAA Student-Athlete Advisory Committee has talked about diversity. Do they see it as a problem or is it something on the administrative level?
Student-athletes feel they probably, in most cases, are in the most diverse place on the campus. They think of themselves as their own diversity. They have issues along sport lines. We have the Leadership Conference here where we bring in about 350 student-athletes. Fifty percent people of color, and 50 percent white; 50 percent male and 50 percent female; and 27 sports were represented. Eight countries were represented. We gave them some paper and led them down the road to leadership.
What was striking to them was what we do in the first moment is take away position power. We try to defuse that right away. Get them out of that and make people understand that the next few days are not about whether you're a football player or a lacrosse player. This is about the one thing you have in common and that is that you are all student-athletes. Division I, II and III, all over the map and you don't know when you walk up to someone what they play or where they're from.
As a result, those 300 people discovered significant issues around diversity that they never thought they would see. One young man came out and said he thought the other team was the enemy. So, he never spoke to them or looked at them. They would set up a situation where they were the advosaries. After being here, he recognized that they are just like him and now he was going to go across the room and engage them.
We, as administrators, have opportunities to create situations in which our student-athletes can foster diversity. Or, we can set up silos around our sports in which other teams are taking resources from us. Our student-athletes that come to this conference really feel that pressure. They think they are pretty diverse, but they see the adult coaches and administrators setting up barriers, creating competition for resources that sets them in a place where they have to take sides against other student-athletes. They don't think that's very positive. It is a feeling they have.
This year, for the first time, we integrated and brought coaches here from football, men's basketball, women's basketball, volleyball and soccer. We put those coaches on our color teams and they travel for a time with our student-athletes and heard the discussions the student-athletes had. We want them to go back and talk to their administrations about ways in which they could begin to look at student-athletes a little bit differently.
There was a significantly meaningful experience for the student-athletes and that diversity in listening to those differences and moving forward from it.
Anita, are there any groups of participants in the Olympics that ever talk about diversity between participants and coaches and administrators?
Yes, sure. The athletes talk about it a lot. The coaches do as well. I misspoke a little bit. The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 does talk about diversity and opportunity. It gives the responsibility to the USOC and the national governing bodies a charge for promotion of diversity and also charge of responsibility for seeing to opportunity for disabled athletes as well.
There's a lot of responsibility in the Act, but I point out, no funding. The funding has to be raised to support the responsibilities for all of this. You get a little federal funding in your schools, but the U.S. Olympic Committee's funding all has to be raised from private sources.
The athletes talk about diversity and the coaches talk about it. When choices are made, the athletes come from across the country, national teams are formed. Sometimes your coach is not selected. Your coach may be, in your mind, a better coach than the one who was selected. You think that's not fair. Our coach was not selected because she or he was or wasn't. Then the issue is why not.
The discussions that are happening now are positive. We're moving along. Discussions are positive, but we need more than talk, we need action and more opportunities. We need some of the work that both Ron and Rich have been doing.
Richard, what does your research show the difference, if any, between diversity problems for student-athletes and administrators?
It's huge. The student-athletes much better represent the nation. In athletics departments, it's just the opposite. One of the things we have to account for that maybe we didn't think about much in the past is that we always thought about black and white. In the world of sports, we can no longer think in those terms. The increase of Latino and athletes in professional sport has begun to change that. The number of international athletes playing on our college teams has begun to change that. Nearly 20 percent of all professional athletes are now international athletes and not born in the United States.
When we opened a satellite office in Orlando, I worked here. We hired, as our chief operating officer of the center in Boston, a Latino male. Just having him in a leadership position on the staff changed the whole dynamic of the center. It began to help us look at different things. I've been involved in the center for more than 30 years; it was a wake-up call for me to realize that I was looking at it mainly in terms of black and white. That's something we'll need to look at more carefully now.
From the Panel
We're now bringing in more and more student-athletes from other countries who come in with different sets of issues that need to be resolved. We have coaches and administrators who have very little ability or understanding of that other culture. That is a learning we'll have to look at more concretely and put a structure in place so people can get that knowledge they need. If we're going to recruit internationally, we're going to have to do some things differently.
Good morning, my name is David Thomas from Morgan State University. I want to say that I, too, would like to commend NACDA for bringing such a forum to this particular body, as well as bringing forward such distinguished panelists. I would also like to encourage such dialogue to continue. It is often said that timing is everything. Let's schedule dialogue when we have more eyes and ears for this type of discussion. I do commend NACDA and I would appreciate further discussion in the future.
We are one race, the human race. Everybody has something to offer. Let's not be afraid to open and offer our hearts and minds. There's so much that everyone has to offer. If you're just open to it, you'll be amazed at how much people can bring to the table.
I'm privileged to be a part of a worldwide organization and I've seen that. Remember that everybody can contribute.
Diversity isn't a zero-sum game. We've got to get over that and look at what people from diverse backgrounds can add to our environments. What richness can they bring and try to seek that out. Look when you have a homogenous group of people as that group is devoid of other decision-making activities, greater creativity, greater innovation, more productivity. That's where we need to focus.
I would challenge each one of you as an administrator to see what you can do over the next 12 months to make something happen. Don't rely on your neighbor at the other institution to make the decision for you. Don't rely on the Pac-10 or the Big Ten or any other conference to do something conference-wide. Go do it yourself. Look around yourself and see if you have the most diverse staff. Ask if you're getting the most information you need. If not, hire differently, change some things.
We're going to be sending you some information and putting things on the web because we need your help. We're going to benchmarking you to get those qualities and characteristics for this project. We need your help. Don't even wait for that. If you have an opening, make sure everyone has given you a diverse group of candidates or send it back. Don't tolerate people giving you a list of the same. You have to change this now. The other way has not worked. We have to do it differently.
To reiterate what Anita said, I was invited to be a speaker last week in Tulsa. All of the chiefs of the nation's Native American tribes gathered together for three days to talk about issues of sovereignty among themselves. I am always struck when I'm around Native Americans that they are our most spiritual people. They believe that all of the people of the world live within the one circle of humanity. We're all part of one human family. That has always inspired my work and my life.
To reiterate what Ron just said, one of the most effective tools I've seen in college or professional sports happened in Major League Baseball at the end of last year. Baseball has not had the best in terms of issues of diversity. The commissioner's office had to see the list of candidates of who was going to be interviewed for a position. That forced the clubs to bring in a diverse pool of applicants and also ended up with two African-American managers being hired at the end of the year. This increased the number of baseball managers to where they almost exceeded the National Basketball Association.
I'd like to thank our panelists for being here today. Let's have a round of applause for being here.
Thank you Alfred. You were an excellent moderator and we appreciate your skills very much.
On behalf of NACDA, I would like each of our panelists come forward for a small token of our appreciation.