All NACDA Members
Total Quality Management: How It Can Work For Your Athletic Department
(Monday, June 6 --11:45 a.m.- 12:45 p.m.)
I appreciate your staying for this meeting because it really is a program that I think will be very valuable for you to carry back and use at your programs in your schools. I fIrst met Don Casselman as we began to work on a Division I-A NCAA program that is called CHAMPS by I-A Athletic Directors and called Life Skills Program by the NCAA. I hesitate to say NCAA because they are moving it from the NCAA Foundation to the NCAA, so it will be part of their basic program of operations. Under that program, which is the Life Skills Program, where we are concerned with the welfare of the student- athlete and that's our main mission as far as the I-A athletic directors are concerned. It has five components that are stressed in this program. The first one is committed to athletics. What we're trying to get across is a commitment not only to be the best that you can be as far as an athlete is concerned, but to do it in the right way. We stress such things as sportsmanship and some of the things that have sounded pretty corny until the recent publicity regarding what is taking place in college athletics. None ofus are beyond that. Commitment to academics is the second component. Obviously, all ofus are working very hard with all of the various factors of academics.
A commitment to personal skills is one that we do not do much with and we are emphasizing the various things that we need to do with our athletes that they do not get in the classroom, nor under normal circumstances. A commitment to service, as many of you have heard, the concept that we ought to be paying the players. Now, we're thinking more in terms of the players ought to be doing more in regard to their communities and giving back to society. That is the basic component.
The last, but not least, component is the commitment to career development. This is where I first met Don Casselman. In the NCAA Program of Life Skills, Don and his staff are developing that commitment. Last fall we had a I-A symposium in which we tried to teach coaches, donors and others what we're trying to do with the various components. Don represented the career development component. He did an outstanding job and we were very impressed with the work ofhis company and what they're trying to do for athletic programs throughout the country .Not only are they interested in trying to help us with career development and working with athletes trying to get jobs, we feel strongly that it is a commitment on our part
that we should have a commitment. Not only to get a person to excel as an athlete and to get a degree, but for us to try to get them gainfully employed when they leave our school. We feel very strongly that that should be a commitment of athletics programs throughout the country. Certainly, in I-A, we've taken it on as a basic part of our program. Not only do we need to get them jobs, but we need to, as administrators, know how to motivate them on how to keep their jobs and how to perform well. We also need to be able to manage them properly from a standpoint of so many of you in this room who are given the responsibility to manage these programs at your schools.
That is part of the total management program that you will hear this morning. I have talked with you just briefly about my associations with Don and his staff because they've come in career development. They've done such an outstanding job in that program, that I have no doubt in what Don and his staff will present today. Don is a graduate of Indiana University and has 20 years of outstanding work in this area. I saw that not only has he done this, but he's written songs. I've seen so many things in his resume that I won't go over, but I do take great pleasure in introducing him in this area.
Thank you very much. It's a pleasure to be back with you today. Some of you saw us last year in San Diego when we introduced the student-athlete development program. In that year's time, we've been able to work with the NCAA in developing, as Gene said, the CHAMPS Program or the Life Skills Program. I will look forward to continuing that as we progress throughout this year .
The focus for today is Total Quality Management. When I started Success From Within about three years ago, I really had an emphasis on athletics. Being a former student-athlete at Indiana University, I saw a lot of things going on in the marketplace. I thought more and more of my work with corporations was giving me some solid input of what might transform well into some of the challenges that athletic departments are facing. Certainly, the career development issue is one that our company is addressing. We have a lady named Brenda McLain, who works with us out of Atlanta, who is a renowned expert on personal presentation skills. Today, I'm pleased to introduce you to two ofmy associates in the Total
Quality Management arena. In any good organization when you have a need, you go fmd the people to best fulfill that need. I'm talking about what a coach would do with his team or what an athletic director would do with his or her department. It's been my experience that two people sitting in this room today best represent that effort. 1'11 introduce them shortly.
One of the things I want to get across today is that Total Quality Management is a system, a program, a process, that demands one thing above and beyond everything else and that is, commitment from the athletic director. I say it in the career development aspect. When we have an athletic director like Warner Alford from Ole Miss get extremely involved with the program, good things happen. I would encourage each of the athletic directors here today and their staffs to pay particular attention to, not only the details that we're going to be covering, but also the leadership issue. This is something that I can't stress too much about having the need for as we engage in these programs.
One of our speakers today is Mary Ann Heath; the other is Doug Lang. I've known Doug briefly. His credentials are superb. As many of you might remember from last year, I've known Mary Ann since the sixth grade, and yes, she is older and looks about 10 years younger. Mary Ann and I both went to Indiana University .Doug is a Gator from Florida. If you have any questions afterward, we'll be available to answer them.
Mary Ann and Doug first became involved with Total Quality Management when they were with Florida Power and Light Company here in the Sunshine State. These people have written the book on Total Quality Management. When I talk about expertise, I'm talking about it at the highest level. They have been employed as TQM consultants allover North America and allover Europe, as well. You're hearing from the top of the profession of Total Quality Management. We've had extensive talks about how we can bring this process to athletic departments. I think you're going to enjoy it and you're going to have fun.
We've got an overhead. As Don said, we want to have a little fun. Hopefully, some of you will walk away with an understanding about what Total Quality Management is all about. Charles Darwin said, "It's not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but rather, the most responsive to change." For those of you in here a little while ago, there was a lot of talk about change. Keep this in perspective. Are we going to be a dinosaur? Are we going to be a whale? Are we going to be responsive to the changes that are impacting us? One of the methods to be responsive to change is TQM. We're going to talk about TQM today. We're going to talk about three components. What is TQM all about? As Don mentioned, it is very important that there is commitment from the leadership. It's essential for this to be successful.
We're going to talk about three components. I'm going to speak about planning to start with and then Mary Ann will come up and talk about the two other components. If you walk out of here with anything, remember this, when we talk about TQM, we're talking about planning. We're talking about a focus on process and not people, not blaming people. Finally, continuous improvement. We're going to strive to continually improve.
We're going to talk about three things that are important when you're planning. First, we want to focus on a few items. We've got a lot of issues that are addressing our business, our activities, but we need to focus. When we were working with the Japanese, they use an analogy of chasing rabbits. If you're in a room full of rabbits and you're trying to catch one, you're not too successful. But, if one runs by you and you run after it, and another one runs by and you reach for it, and another comes by and you reach for it, and if another one comes by and you reach for it, you won't be too successful. But, if you focus on just a few rabbits, just a few rabbits, you'll be much more successful. So, we need to focus on a few items. When we planned for this presentation, we sent out some surveys to you, our customers, and asked some questions. What are some of the key issues that are affecting you in the way you run your department. We got a couple of responses back, funding, cost containment and graduation rates. There is some focus and we may focus on just those three areas. That's what is important in your school. We're going to focus on just a few areas and we're going to work to make improvements on these.
The next thing is to let everyone know what is important. What are we going to work on? We need to communicate to everyone what are our priorities for this year. In a lot of work that Mary Ann and I do, this is typically an annual event. We'll prioritize things for the next year. We're going to focus on just a few items and we're going to let everyone in the organization know what we're working on and, then, why. Why? Why is this important? Because it's important to the students. It's important to the university, etc. We need to let them know why, as well as what, we're working on.
Finally, we need to check our progress periodically. Monthly, for example, we may need to review our progress towar our set goals. How are we doing? What have we learned? Mary Ann will talk more about continuous improvement. But,
what did we learn to this point? What did we do well? What did we do wrong? How can we learn from this? We'll continually check and we'll continually monitor and continually move forward. TQM is a database for objective process, for program. We've got a lot of experience in our field. We want to augment our gut instincts with facts. So, we're talking about collecting data, making educated decisions when we do these things. So, we're going to talk to our customers and understand what are our priorities. What's important? What are the things we really need to work on? Then, we'll prioritize those to get us in focus. Then, we'll let everyone know what our focus is and periodically check to see how we're doing relative to what we want to accomplish. That's the first component ofTQM.
Now Mary Ann Heath, my associate, is going to come up and talk about focusing on process and continuous improvement. She will give you an example of some of the tools that exist to be able to move you in that direction into implementing TQM.
Mary Ann Heath:
Let's say that somebody walks into your office one day and they say, "I hate to be the bearer of bad news and please
don't shoot this messenger, but we just got word that our largest source of funding has totally and completely dried up. I just wanted to let you know that you're going to be responsible for 25 percent increase in funding in your program next year and I wish you the best." Has anyone ever been there? What would happen if someone did that to you? Now what? How do you move toward whatever it is you need to do? You've been given a problem. You've been requested to do a lot of change and you have absolutely no idea ofwhere you're going. Change is not comfortable.
Do me a favor and cross your arms. You're going to be a part of an exercise. Now, look down and see which arm is over the other arm. My left arm is over my right arm. Now, switch arms. How comfortable do you feel? Not very? See, I did not ask you to change the course of the world, I merely asked you to change position of your arms, but it was uncomfortable because it's not what you're used to. We've all seen a lot of different change. I was in college in the late 60s. That was a time of a lot of major change on college campuses. When I started at Indiana University, I remember that we had dress codes and when you wanted to go down for lunch on Sunday, you had to wear a dress. By the time I left school, all of the dress codes were gone and there were coed dorms --major change. I remember there was a poster in every room in
every dorm on the entire Indiana University campus. It was very indicative of the way we felt at the time and it went like this, "If you love something, set it free. If it comes back to you, it's yours forever. If not, it was never meant to be." A
friend of mine took her daughter to Florida State University last fall. She came back and told me the poster is back. It's the same poster, except there's a little change which reflects the thinking of today, for now this poster reads, "If you love something, set it free. If it comes back to you, it's yours forever. If not, hunt it down and kill it."
Let's say you were presented with that scenario, how do you move forward? Doug just touched on what the planning issues are necessary for you. What major things are you going to focus on to move your athletic department in the direction
it needs to go. Quality planning is one way. We can't put out, we cannot solve every single problem at one time. Everything cannot get the same amount of emphasis, so you pick those two or three things. Perhaps, maybe the things you're going to focus on, obviously, you have one given to you and that's increase funding. Two, might be cost containment or reduced cost and the third one is going to be increasing the percentage of graduating seniors.
So, now we've planned. What is the next step? Where do we go from here? It's important when you plan those things to establish indicators with them so you know what indicates success. Increase funding. That's nice, but by what percentage and how do you make these decisions? You make these decisions based on fact, based on data. How many of you are very good at collecting the statistics in your school? Statistics are something that you are probably very good at. But, I ask you how long does it take to process your paperwork? How long does it take something you do on daily basis? I'm not sure that you know because that's not the kind of data we collect daily, usually, but it's what we need to begin to look at.
Once we have our quality planning set up and we know what indicates success based on data, not our gut instinct, we move on to focus on the process. What is it that we do repetitively? What are those core processes that set up funding? How do we solicit money from our alumni, from the state, from our private sources? What is a process of doing this? We begin to look at how we do business. We begin to flow chart that. We establish indicators around our process. We get into statistical process control and begin to do control charts so we know based on statistics and data when our process is in control and when it's capable of doing what we want it to do. I don't know about you, but I think I could be in Ripley's Believe It Or Not because I made it through all four years at IU and never took a math class. I had to take everything else in order not to take math, but when I started working on this program in 1981 with the Florida Power and Light Company, I understood how important all of the statistics were that I missed. So, I had to re-learn. But, now I understand that you don't
make decisions based on what you feel, make decisions based on the data. Now, I can do those statistical process control charts just like that.
We'll look at the data, we'll look at the process, we'll flowchart out the process. Have any of you ever flowcharted anything in your whole life. It is not the most fun thing in the world to do, but it's very enlightening. One of the small things that was causing the FBI a great amount of difficulty was its interoffice mail system. About 40 percent of the FBI employees are at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., and they couldn't get memos out. They asked for our help. I said to begin to look at the process and we flowcharted their process and found that there was a particular problem area. The problem was that if you sent a memo within the FBI, it went to the mail room and they will staple and label it for you and send it out, which sounds nice. Except, if you did not have a checkmark by your name, the mail room would send the memo back to you. Why do they send it back if your name is not checked? They said, "I don't know. That's the way we've always done it." We went back and began to figure out why we had to have this check by our name. We found out that when J. Edgar Hoover was the head of the FBI, his second in command was a man named Tolson. Mr. Hoover hated to proofread memos, but he didn't want anything going out with his signature that wasn't proofread. So, he has his second in command proofread them. In order to let Mr. Hoover know that he had proofread them, he put a "T" by Mr. Hoover's name. The mail room would then know that when they got a memo from J. Edgar Hoover and there was a "T" by the name, it had been proofread, so they could send it out. Over the years, that "T" became a check and now everybody at the Bureau had to have a check by their name. There was no other reason for having to check to signature by the name other than that. Do you think you might do things like that in your athletic department? Do you have processes that are unnecessary and we do them because that's the way we've always done them. Alright, focus on process. How does that help increase funding? How does that help in cost containment? I would venture to say if you want to increase your funding, you're going to have to contain your cost. One of the ways to contain your cost is to get fewer people to do more work. That's a focus. Get on board with the rest of corporate America because that's what's happening.
We focus on process. What does that mean that we have to do? Plan, do, study, act. Let's plan what we're going to do. Let's do it and go back and study it and then act on what you've found. As a culture in America, we're pretty good at planning. We're much better at doing. We seem to gauge ourselves by how quickly we jump on a problem and how quickly we solve. Problems with that is that six months later, we could be solving the same problem allover again. So, we plan
what we're going to do. This is what's called the continuous improvement cycle. This comes straight out of Dr. W. Edwards Demming. He said, "I never said this stuff was easy. I only said it would work." He's right. We're very good at planning, we're pretty good at doing. We just don't seem to be very good about going back and studying what it is that we did and correcting the errors and continue that continuous improvement cycle. Our Japanese counselors used to beat us to death with this one. They said it should be like, ready, aim, fire. You remind us of ready, fire, aim. This is the process we want to look at in focusing on process.
The third component is continuous improvement or problem solving. There was a young boy and it was Christmas. He was driving his mom nuts, eating candy and bouncing off the walls. His mother finally lost it and just blew up. She said, "Young man, you march yourself up to your room this instant and you write Jesus a letter and tell him how sorry you are. There's no way Santa Claus will come anywhere close to this house. He went upstairs and sat down to write, "Dear Jesus,
I'm sorry how I was acting." He didn't like that, so he began again. "Dear Jesus, please make sure Santa Claus comes by my house." He didn't like that either, so he crumbled it up and threw it away. He got an idea. He went downstairs to the Christmas tree. Underneath the tree sat a Nativity .He picked Mary up, took her back upstairs to his room and set her down on his desk. He took out another sheet of paper and wrote, "Jesus, if you want to see your mother again." So, I will challenge you that if you're not willing to change, you can also be held hostage to old ideas and old ways of doing things because if you think you can meet the new challenges of today and the changes of today the way we've always done things, then I will give you Albert Einstein's definition of insanity , "Doing the same old things and expecting different results." That is his defmition of insanity .
The problem solving cycle should have a process of how to solve problems. Let's say that our process of getting fundin! is not a really good process and we home in on a problem area. How do we solve the problem. Most ofus don't like a structure at TQM because there is a certain set way of doing things and there is a certain way to solve problems. First of all, identify and select the problem. What is it you are looking at? What are the tools that you can use? If I was going to use a tool to show you funding, I'd use a very simple line graph. I'd show you where your funding is today and where you want to be by the end of 1995. We would see a gap. How do we plan to close that gap? We would select our problem. We would analyze our problem. One of the tools to use to analyze our problem is Cause and Effect Diagram, sometimes called the Fishbone Diagram.
Let's say one of the reasons is that alumni has chosen not to give us money anymore because we're not winning the way they want us to win. What's the root cause? We've selected our problem. We've backed it up with data. We begin to
analyze it and do a fishbone. Find the root causes, not what we think the problems are, not what the causes are, but what are the root causes. Let's fix it once and for all and move on. So, we have defeat in a sports match. With use of our employees and use of teams and teamwork and use of data, we'll come up with root causes of the problems. That's a tool we can use.
We generate potential solutions. On step three and in step four, we'll begin to select and plan for those solutions. We backed up with data what the problem is. We have found the root cause of the problem. We have come up with solutions. We are going to plan for the solutions. We will implement the solutions, but that's not enough. That's where we usually stop. Once we implement the solution, we go back and we evaluate and we're like a dog with a bone. Never let go of it. We will continuously improve. This is a whole cycle.
We've talked about focusing on processes. We've talked about planning, focusing on process. What's continuing improvement. We're trying to do this in as short a period as possible. We are lightly touching on every single area. You can get into some very in-depth statistics, some very in-depth analysis, all kinds of techniques depending on what kinds of programs you want to get into. But, if you take away these three areas, don't try to do one at a time, do all three components to make it work. The key, the driver is you. We'll have decisions based on fact. We will commit to improving continuously, focus on process, we'll learn process flowcharting. We'llleam how to establish indicators. We'llleam how to do statistical process control charts. We'll understand using data and tools. How if we are capable and stable in our processes. We'll let everyone be committed. We'll let those folks who work with problems every day solve the problems. If you have problems in procurement or getting supplies, let the people who work on that solve their own problems. They know them better than you. But, the driver is you because without your direction, without your commitment, it will not work. Don't think that you will be an athletic director and say to your staff that this TQM stuff might work, so you go do it. We'll tell you right here and now, it won't work. As an athletic director, if you're not committed, if you're not the driver behind, don't even bother getting involved. Don't even begin a program because you'll frustrate your employees. It'll be just one more thing that you've tried to start and it didn't work. If you're not willing to drive, don't do it at all.
If you're going to seek consulting help, make sure it's someone you trust. Don't miss an opportunity to roll with the punches and change. Work with your employees and see success. Nothing works without everybody involved, without people knowing what's going on and without an employee motivated base.
Thank you, Mary Ann. Having the opportunity to work with some of you, I see more and more of this wall that Mary Ann has talked about beginning to break down. There is a TEAM -Training, Education, Attitude and Motivation. When all of that functions together, some amazing things happen.