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(Tuesday, June 8 -9:30-10:45 a.m.)

Vince Dooley:

Good morning, I'm Vince Dooley from the University of Georgia and the moderator of this panel. I think it's appropriate following the theme of leadership day that this panel give their opening remarks around the coach as a leader. You 've just heard from others on leadership on a different level but, this brings the coach as a leader to the student-athletes. I forwarded to each coach a copy of a letter and I mentioned that this would include not only striving to develop the full potential of each student-athlete's athletic ability as well as the full potential of the team ' s athletic ability, but addressing the question as to the responsibility, if you believe there is one, of a coach being a role-model to his or her athletes. Does a coach have a responsibility to set standards and teach values that will benefit the athlete while competing as well as when the athlete's career is over? I forwarded to each coach a copy of a memorandum from President Gregory O'Brien from the University of New Orleans, who is chairman of the Presidents Commission for the NCAA. The memo addresses the subject of a resolution regarding sportsmanship and verbal conduct. The memo, in part, says that the NCAA President's Commission discusses it's growing concern with the use of obscene and vulgar language by coaches and student-athletes. The Commission adopted a resolution which, in part says, "Whereas intercollegiate athletics exists to force the sportsmanship and personal development as well as competitive excellence and whereas coaches and athletics personnel are charged to teach values and sportsmanship in word and in deed and whereas coaches and athletes serve as role models for young people and whereas there is evidence of widespread and growing use of obscene and vulgar language by coaches and student-athletes which reflects badly on institutions of higher education, now, therefore, be it resolved that the NCAA President's Commission in it's meeting in Kansas City, Missouri, June 23, 1992, expresses it's concern regarding this behavior of coaches and student-athletes and urges presidents, athletic directors, coaches, officiating organization and student-athletes to take steps to protect canons of good sportsmanship as they relate to verbal conduct.

We'll start the discussion along those lines, again, with the coach as a leader. I'll ask each of the panelists to speak five to 10 minutes. Afterwards, we'll have a question and answer period. If you will start thinking of the questions you always wanted to ask the coach and I will start it off by asking the first question that I've always wanted to ask a coach. First of all, I want to introduce to you George Raveling, who completed his seventh year as the men's basketball coach at the University of Southern California. The last three years he has led his squad to the NCAA tournament twice and the NIT tournament once. In his 21-year career, which includes 11 years at Washington State and three years at Iowa, Raveling has posted a career mark of 320-280. He's been very active in serving on many NCAA committees and he's a good person to start the panel. Ladies and gentlemen, Coach George Raveling.

George Raveling:

Good morning ladies and gentlemen, friends and colleagues. I would suspect that if I got up at 9:30 in the morning, I would first examine my mind and ask, how in the world did we end up with the basketball coach from the University of Southern California. But, what happened was, Vince gave me call and said, "George, we need something light with no message and you come highly recommended." That's how I got the job. To be honest with you, I'm a little concerned about the state of my day. I got up this morning and went to put on a shirt and the buttons fell off. I reached for my briefcase as I ran out of the room and the handle fell off. I've been afraid to go to the bathroom all morning. If I look a little jittery up here, you'll understand why.

I'm going to surprise you and begin my portion of the panel presentation with the reflection on kindergarten. You may have read or heard somewhere," All I really need to know, I learned in kindergarten." The author, Robert Fullam, is well known now. This is an essay he has made famous. "Most of what I really need to know, how to live, what to do, how to be, I learned in kindergarten. Wisdom was not at the top of graduate school mountain, but there in the sandbox at the nursery school. These are things I've learned.

Share everything, play fair, don't hit people, put things back where you found them, clean up your own mess, don't take things that aren't yours, say you're sorry when you hurt someone, wash your hands before you eat, flush, warm cookies and milk are good for you. Live a balanced life. Learn some, think some, draw, paint, sing, dance and play. Work everyday too." Think of what a better world it would be if we were all, the whole world, had cookies and milk at about 3 :00 p.m. and then lay down with our blankets for a nap. Oh, if we had a basic policy in our nation and other nations to always put things back where we found them and clean up our own messes. It's still true, no matter how old you are, when you go out into the world, it is best to hold hands and stick together.

I wanted to share some of that with you because I think it speaks to the piece of leadership that I most admire, teaching. It's about learning to be fair, sticking together, how to be a well-rounded person. To me, it's not far from what the student-athlete is supposed to be about in our colleges and universities. I believe that the role of a leader is synonymous with that of a teacher. As a coach, I know I have accepted the responsibility to help my players figure out how to be winners on the court, in the classroom and in the biggest game they'll ever participate in, the game of life.

A coach's relationship with his players is critical to being a successful teacher for them. I have learned that there are three essential elements in any human relationship, whether it be a player/coach, husband/wife, father/son, boss/employee. The first is mutual trust. Next, a shared respect. Then, an open two-way line of communication. Before real teaching can occur, those must be in place and at least beginning to shape. With that in mind, I work to set an example of leadership through my actions. I know that a coach has to live his message, but I also understand the critical need to actively teach qualities of leadership. As the proverb reminds us, "Give me a fish and I eat today, but teach me to fish and I eat forever."

There are scores of studies on leadership these days. Go into any bookstore or pick up any popular magazine. It's easy to find testimony on what does and does not work. The parts of leadership that I teach are the ones that I try to practice. Please consider a few of these with me. One, a coach/leader must be able to take criticism. None of us in this business can avoid criticism We invite it by what we do and sometimes by what we say. So, since we aren't immune, we might as well sort the shaft from the grain, the constructive from the ignorant. I think it's smart to analyze every failure as well as every success and to be willing to adjust. The solid coach leader is always willing to learn. Two, a coach/leader must learn to withstand adversity. We all want to be national champions but, fate sometimes gets in our way. This is the time to teach that there's more to life than winning basketball games. Good coaches/leaders bounce back. Good student-athletes bounce back. You know the good Book says that we should be thankful for problems. Crises builds character. I'm reminded of the old southern preacher who prayed, "Lord, ain't nothing going on today that You and I can't handle." Three, a coach/leader must be able to delegate authority. Here's where players must never forget the reality of a team. We share power. We win together, we lose together, we smile together and we cry together. Secure leaders strive to empower others. The coach/leader must make decisions. Coaches have to take a stand, often under the most difficult circumstances. Players get to see these decisions delivered. Strangely, sometimes they agree with our decisions. But, by example, they know that there are a few opportunities to sit on the fence in life. The coach/leader can't be afraid.

Here's a thought. The next time fear knocks at your door, send faith to answer and there will be no one there. The coach/leader must be free of prejudice. There are times that will test our souls in this society, but prejudice is a luxury only little people can afford. I try to teach that the team is a community .Yes, sometimes a family. We should depend upon one another for the character and talent that each can bring to the table. As a coach/leader, we must all learn to work with people as they are, not as we want them to be. A coach/leader must learn to praise others, to share credit and to give credit when it's due. Everybody needs recognition and the warmth of encouragement.

The playing experience should be fun and, certainly, fulfilling. A coach should reward the team and n just the star. Everyone has an invisible sign hanging from their neck that reads "make me feel important." Leaders give heart by visibly recognizing people's contributions --a thank you note, a smile, a pat on the back, an award. Public praise is important. A coach/leader must be able to concentrate under difficult circumstances. This is part of being able to make good decisions. Players need to be taught the importance of reason in keeping one's head, even when others are losing theirs. An example that I'm fond of using with my players is that we're in a large room and a fire breaks out and panic is about to set in. Sterling leadership is that individual who stands up and says, "Hey, everybody stay calm for a minute. Everybody on this side of the room, go out this exit and everybody on that side of the room, go out that exit. Those in the back, you go out that way and you go out that way. Now, let's see if we can proceed in an orderly fashion." To me, that's sterling leadership when the heat's on.

A coach/leader assumes responsibility for his own mistakes. This is a real challenge. Leadership is not a spectator sport. Coaches aren't in the stands. They're making decisions, and yes, sometimes we make mistakes. I read once that a coach has no place to hide. He cannot just let the job go for a while or do a bad job and assume that no one will notice. He or she cannot satisfy everyone. Seldom can they even satisfy themselves. The coach/leader has to recognize that there are no textbook answers to life's problems. We have to be the authors of our own textbooks. A coach/leader will not try to avoid responsibility for the mistakes of others. There are no scapegoats in good relationships.

Lastly, a good coach/leader will grow and learn. Stagnation can be a part of leadership. Every good leader I've ever studied had a natural drive and desire to help others grow and grow well. My friends, I would like all my players to embrace these qualities of leadership, but if they do not, I want them to celebrate life to the fullest in other ways. I want to inspire them to be dreamers. I want them to see goals, plan how to reach them and to work like crazy to succeed. A leader's job is to create vision. Whereas Jessie Jackson is fond of saying, "Keep hope alive. Keep hope alive. "

You and I have often heard it said that it's lonely at the top. Leadership in any walk of life can be a painful experience. The most challenging aspect of it is the loneliness. It's hard to teach one or to prepare someone for that. I have gained some perspective, sometimes comfort, from a piece entitled, The Paradox of Coaching Leadership. From time to time, when people rain on my parade, I go into my desk drawer and I pull this out and it seems to bring things back into focus for me. It says, "People are illogical, unreasonable, self-centered, but love them anyway. If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish ulterior motives but, do good anyway. If you're successful, you will win false friends and true enemies, but go ahead and succeed anyway. The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow, but do good anyway. Honesty and frankness will make you vulnerable, but be honest and frank. The biggest people with the biggest ideas can be shot down by the smallest people with the smallest minds but, thing big anyway. People favor underdogs, but follow only top dogs. Fight for a few underdogs in your life. What you spend years building up may be destroyed overnight, but build it anyway. People really need help but, may attack you if you help them, but go ahead and help them. Give the world the best you have and you'll get kicked in the teeth, but give the world the best you have anyway." Leadership can be a road to self-discovery, my friends. Sometimes the most important person that we're ever going to lead is ourselves.

It's lonely at the top being a leader, my friends but, it's also as exciting as hell up there. Thank you.

Vince Dooley:

Thank you, George, for getting us off to a good start. Now, I would like to introduce John Cook, who is the women's volleyball coach at the University of Wisconsin. In his first year, he led his young squad to a 14-17 record. Prior to his appointment at Wisconsin, he had served as the assistant coach with the University of Nebraska's women's volleyball program. He was an assistant coach for the U.S. men's national team and will be honored at the luncheon this afternoon. Coach John Cook.

John Cook:

Thank you. It's an honor to be here today. To be honest, I'm a little uncomfortable because there's many people here in this room that I've admired for most of my life, especially as I was growing up and following their careers. I've always wanted to be a coach. Coaches have had the greatest impact on my life besides my mother and father and I've grown up and am in a coaching career. In listening to Coach Raveling, there were things he mentioned that I could picture as an athlete a few years ago, going through those things and having my coaches talk to me about those things as well.

Being a coach and a leader is something, I feel, is a great responsibility and is something that we, as coaches, constantly have to work at. I was asked to be on this panel today to maybe provide a little different viewpoint and I want to quickly talk about my background in coaching because I think I'm going to give a different viewpoint from some of the other coaches. I started off coaching seventh grade, all different sports. I went through high school club programs to the collegiate level and all the way to the national teams in the Olympics. I've coached both men and women. Now, I'm in my first year as a head coach at a major university coaching women athletes again. It's my belief that coaching the female athlete at the collegiate level and what I tell my players, is that they're at the highest level they can go, except into a national team program or the Olympics. I feel that I want them to look in the mirrors and see themselves as elite athletes. I also feel that they haven't been prepared as well as a UCLA football or basketball player as they've come up through the ranks. The opportunities are new for the women and it's something that is growing so fast that I feel my challenges are different as a leader coaching women than they were coaching the U.S. men's national team.

I would like to talk about my challenges that I see being a coach and a leader. First of all, I want our players to look at themselves and become independent players versus dependent players. I have found that many of the players, as they come into a college program, are very dependent on a coach for their confidence, for their success, for how they feel going into a match that day, for their social life, etc. As they grow from a freshman to a senior, I would like them to become an independent player. I have noticed coaching some of the most elite athletes in the world, that one of the characteristics they have is that they are independent. They learn how to take control of the way they perform, the way they feel and of their lives. If that's something I can do with our players to make them become independent, I feel that we will have done a very good job in helping that person. I'll have been a good leader.

Secondly, I want the scholarship that I offer to a high school senior to be equal to the scholarship that Coach Raveling offers to a USC basketball player. What I mean by that is, that young lady I recruit and give that scholarship to, is she going to put in the time and the effort that that USC basketball player will. I'm not sure that many of the female athletes that we're recruiting know the work ethics that go into it. I feel one of my jobs is to teach my athletes how to prepare for a match, watch films, how to condition and train at the level that a USC basketball player would or a Wisconsin football player would. I want to be sure that I'm asking the same amount from them as the other coaches in the other sports are asking from their student- athletes.

I feel this is something that we've had to work at, but it's something that our players and our recruits will respond to. The higher the expectations, the greater the challenge, the greater the effort I will see from our student-athletes.

Third is self-esteem. Something new for many female athletes is playing in front of a large crowd, having their names in the paper, getting their names in the paper, having the pressure of going to a Final Four or winning a Big Ten Conference championship. Those are all pressures that are new to many of the players that are in the volleyball programs. I have a two and a half-year old daughter. She plays differently with her mother and with her girlfriends than she does when she plays with her father or with her boyfriends. I think there's values in competition that are being developed depending on who she's playing with. Obviously with the boys, she has to fight for what she gets. They're more aggressive. They play different games than what she plays with her girlfriends or with her mother. This is something that as a female athlete gets to the collegiate level and has to deal with the challenges that are happening before them, especially in the sport of volleyball which is growing tremendously, I'm not sure they're all equipped with enough self-esteem to face those competitive challenges. So, again as a coach and as a leader, that's something that we have to teach our student-athletes. We work very hard at setting goals and I believe there's golden goals. Many student-athletes do not know how to set goals when they get to the collegiate level. This is something that we work for to make sure that they understand that a goal is measurable and that they will know whether they accomplish that goal or not. Each time they ~t a goal, we need to raise the expectation of standard so they can continue to improve and work to higher and higher levels.

Also, what will help to build self-esteem is success. I believe one of the most important underlying ideas in coaching is that confidence is built through success. The more successful situations that I can put my players into, the more confidence they will gain so they are better able to handle the challenges of competition that are before them. Not only with the challenges of competition, but having to balance an academic life as well as a social life.

I like to quote Coach Duffy Doherty, the football coach, "For them to be successful in no matter what they do, they have to have three bones. They have to have a backbone to face the challenges for when things get really tough. They have to have a wishbone so they can wish for dreams and for goals. They need a funny bone so they can laugh and enjoy themselves throughout their college career and their adult life." If we can accomplish the above, I will feel very good about being a coach and a leader. I know that my student- athletes who I will work with will become successful at whatever challenges they take on. Thank you.

Vince Dooley:

Thank you Coach Cook. Now, I would like to introduce to you Coach Barbara Jacket. Barbara is the former women's track & field coach from Prairie View A&M University. She retired in 1991 to devote her time as a member of the U.S. team coaching the Olympics squad. She will also be honored at the luncheon today. She remains as Prairie View's athletic director. Coach Barbara Jacket.

Barbara Jacket:

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. Like Mr. Cook, I'm going to approach this a different way. Since I've finished my coaching career, I've had some opportunities to come and speak. When the NCAA started calling and asking to me speak, I thought, "Oh, oh, something's going wrong here." In my office, I have a sign on both walls and it reads, "It's a sin to be ungrateful." I put that sign up because for about eight or nine straight years, we had won the outdoor NAIA championship. Well, we got second and all of my team started going crazy .So, I put it up to say, you were there and if you start being ungrateful for a second or third or even participating, then you won't be successful in life. When I was asked to come and talk about a coach being a leader, I need to discuss myself a little bit because I came from the west side of Port Arthur, Texas. I think that athletics was my backbone. My coach was also my backbone.

Growing up on the west side of Port Arthur, Texas, I decided with the Lord's help, I was going to be somebody. But I decided that because my mother's landlady told her that I wouldn't make it through the seventh grade, she won't graduate from high school. She told her I wouldn't be anything because I played football with the boys. I made up my mind then, and I was seven years old, that I was going to be somebody, in spite of what this lady said. Now, she had four grandchildren and half of them are on drugs. One thing you can't do is to talk about somebody else's child or somebody else's children because you'll never know what can happen. I can relate that to coaching.

How can I relate that to coaching? Because I was asked to talk about being a leader. When you try to downplay other coaches' teams, you find out that what goes around, comes around. You cannot forget that that person who was up here today may be down here tomorrow. Someone wants to know how to be a good leader. Number one, is to be a good follower. You take criticisms, but you also remember that there is good, better and best. You don't necessarily have to be the best to be good. You don't necessarily have to be criticizing people in order to be a winner.

In 1954, I received my first scholarship. You've got to remember that what we're talking about in 1992 about Title IX, we were way ahead of what is occurring now as far as gender equity. We had championship basketball teams at Lincoln High School. We had championship track teams at Lincoln High School. I'm talking about the late '40s and early '50s. No, I'm not as old as Dr. Walker, but I can remember these things. I remember them because I lived them. I remember when I was a freshman, I couldn't wait for track season. My coach said, "You better get your lesson first." We've always done that. We never had to have a Proposition 48 to make us want to be good. Do you know why? Because we had so many adversities. I can remember being from the west side of Texas looking ahead and saying one of these days, I was going to go up to a light about five blocks away. I thought it was a long way. You couldn't go past Houston Avenue because that was on the west side and you were on the east side.

You 're talking about leaders. Some of the are born. Some of them are made because they had to fight s< many adversities. When I look at television now and I see people acting like fools, I'm talking about an official calling a technical foul and you disagreed with it. He then calls a technical and the coach thinks you're the best person in the world and he doesn't take you out. Pretty soon, you get kicked out of the game because you didn't know how to control your temper. Well, I think it starts at home. That same athlete that you're getting now, did not get punished at home. They did not get a spanking when they hit their parents. ] was funny to you. It's not funny now and it's not funny because that child was not disciplined. All of a sudden we hear about child abuse. Hell, I got whippings every day. I think it helped me. So, the bottom line is that you're asking us what to do with these kids when they get to college. Time out, ladies and gentlemen. You have to start way before then and you've got to start before then because if you put winning above all of it, you're going to keep them out there while they're acting like fools just so you can win. It doesn't work that way.

You see, I found out a long time ago that if you discipline your stars, the ones at the other end will fall into line. They'll fall in line because they don't want not to be a part of the team. Some of you have heard about me. You've heard that I'm a hell raiser. I'm still a hell raiser. I haven't changed, but then I found out in my coaching career, that you have to tap the sources. What am I talking about? I had an athlete who weighed 270 pounds and her name was Woody Wilson. Woody wouldn't get up in the morning to go to the weight room. She wasn't fat but, just solid. So, we'd get up at 6:00 a.m. I had to knock on her door to wake her up. Finally, I made up my mind with the help of the Lord. I said, "Lord, I'm going to tackle Woody today and I sure hope she doesn't retaliate. When I knocked on the door, I said, "Woody, get your big ass out and let's go." Well, Woody put her clothes on and we went to the gym. Everyone else was there. I started blasting Woody out in front of all of these superstars, but they were little ones. If I get Woody , I won't have to worry about those little ones. I say to you ladies and gentlemen, with a lot of sincerity, that you have to discipline your athletes, but it has to start at home. When they get to be freshman in college, they're young adults. They've just about been molded into what they want to be. We have to start in the elementary schools and in the junior highs. The importance of being a part of and being a participant is to let them have fun because when they get out into the world, they'll work.

When I look at Little League baseball, I see an official make a bad call and they go crazy and almost kill each other. This is not leadership. You 've got to set examples and think how you want your child to be like. Set examples knowing that one day this child will be an adult. They have to have examples set for them.

You need to volunteer your time to go into some of these schools and talk to these young kids. Tell them that it's important for them to get their lesson, but it's also important for them to respect their teachers. You can't spank a child. Parents send letters to schools and said, "Don't spank my child. Call me." Well hell, most of you can't find the parents. As a result, I don't agree that you should kill them, but I also believe that you should get their attention. If you can't get their attention, you surely can't teach them. You can't coach them. It's all left up to us as leaders to get their attention.

I go into schools often. I believe that if every person in this room that taught math, English, etc. would put it to music, you'd have geniuses everywhere because every time you look around, they've got these things in their ears. Put it to music. If you put the lesson to music, they'll pass. You wouldn't have to worry about Prop 48. Lastly, I asked them how often they practice football, basketball or track. Theyanswer, "From 3:00 to 5:00 p.m." Good. Now, how often do you practice getting your lesson? They look at me and say, "She's crazy. I don't have to practice to get my lesson. I'll just let somebody change my grade and go on and pass." It doesn't work that way, ladies and gentlemen. Let's get some ethics in it. Let's look in the mirror and be able to say we've done our best and I didn't do it by stepping on anyone else. Thank you very much.

Vince Dooley:

Thank you, Barbara, and we sure need more Coach Jackets in the world. Terry Donahue just completed his 17th year as the football coach at UCLA. He has a career record of 131-59-8 and is ranked 11 th among active coaches with at least 10 years of experience. He led his teams to eight straight bowl victories between 1982 and 1991 including three Rose Bowl titles. He also holds an NCAA scoring record of 245 consecutive scoring games. Ladies and gentlemen, Coach Terry Donahue.

Terry Donahue:

Thank you very much ladies and gentlemen. It's indeed a real pleasure and privilege to be here this morning and be on this panel with these outstanding coaches. When you're fourth on the panel discussion, most of what you thought you might have said probably has already been said. I certainly don't want to be redundant. There are a few points of leadership I would like to share with you this morning that may be a little different than some of the previous speakers.

One, is that when I reflect on leadership and when I think about the various people that I've come in contact with throughout my life that have effected me, that I have looked up to and respected as leaders, that I have worked with who are leaders, I think all leadership has one common thread that runs throughout. It's impossible to be an effective, strong leader without a sincere commitment to a cause. I don't think that you can go into a leadership role, be it the role of a coach, be it the role of an athletic director, the role of a president, the role of a CEO, unless you have a true commitment to the cause, a drive, a devotion to some field of endeavor. That's absolutely critical when we sit down and try to evaluate leadership. When I look at leaders on our football team or leaders in our program, I want to find out which of the individuals are really committed to the cause or to what we're trying to get accomplished. The stronger leaders that I've had throughout my coaching career at UCLA have all had a firm belief in what we've tried to accomplish athletically. They believed in the principles of the program. They believed in the coaching staff. They believed in their fellow teammates. They had a firm commitment to what we were trying to accomplish. If there's anyone thing about leadership that has to be judged, I think it's a commitment to a cause. It's very difficult to follow a leader if he's half-hearted as to the cause that he's leading for.

All of us today in athletics are certainly challenged with many things. No matter which side of the fence regarding various issues, it's your sense of commitment, your sense of belief in what you're doing that is going to distinguish you as a forceful and effective leader. Obviously, all leaders are going to be judged by their actions and by their worlds, how we carry ourselves, what we do, what we say, how we act is going to be the determining factor as to how effective we're going to be as a leader.

Vince, when he asked me to appear on this panel, said he wanted me to spend a couple of minutes on what I thought my responsibilities were as a coach and what my role as a leader would be. In reflecting back on that question, it occurred to me that as a head football coach at a school like UCLA, I have several responsibilities. One, is to win football games. All of us in intercollegiate athletics understand clearly that one of the roles that the coach must play is that of winning. Winning is important. Winning is very important. Not of winning at all costs, but a winning perception, a winning program certainly are some of the real issues that you're going to judged and evaluated on. You have a direct responsibility as a coach to represent your university publicly and privately in a very positive way. That responsibility falls directly on the shoulders of a coach. If a coach is unwilling or unable to carry out that responsibility, he's going to have a very difficult time in trying to survive in this environment.

As a coach and role model for young people, you have to be willing to stand up and set certain standards, certain values that George, Barbara and John have talked about. You want to teach and educate the young people under your direction. You want to talk to your football team about what it is to have good sportsmanship and how it is that you should accept winning and how you should accept losing. You need a set of values, a set of standards where you're willing to stand up and talk to your young charges about and talk about what you believe in as a person. Then, you have to accept the responsibility for how they react to what you set before them.

As a football coach and as a leader of young people at an academic institution, you have some responsibility for their academic success. But, certainly not total responsibility. I marvel today when university presidents tell me that I'm responsible for the academic success of my athletes. Quite frankly, I don't agree with that. I think that I certainly have a responsibility, some responsibility, for the academic success of my athletes, but not total responsibility .I tell our players that, first and foremost, they have responsibility for their own academic success. We provide them an opportunity to attend a university. We provide them with the best counseling that we have available at our university. We provide them with the tutorial program as good as anyone in the country has. They have a responsibility, first and foremost, to th( own academic success. When I was fortunate enough as an undergraduate student to attend UCLA, I was V( lucky to get an undergraduate and a graduate degree. At no time, throughout my collegiate career, did my coach ever mention to me that you need to graduate from school. My coach was there to teach football. TI was back in 1965-66. It's 1993. It's different. It's a different age. The coach today has more responsibilit for more academic progress than every before in our history .But certainly, he doesn't have all of the responsibility for the academic success of his players.

The university has a responsibility .The coach is not the admissions board. The coach doesn't decide who comes to school and who gets that opportunity, an admissions process does. So, those people that are directly responsible for admitting those young athletes are just as responsible as I am for the academic succ of our players. I am responsible, but not totally.

As a leader and as a coach, you have to be able to stand up. You have to be able to articulate your position and you have to be able to convince people not to judge me solely on this or that issue, but collectively, we all need to take responsibility for what happens to our programs. Athletic directors, presidents, coaches, faculty members all have to take responsibility .I've seen universities where faculties wil stand up and say, "take a look around, because 50 percent of you next year will be gone." Those people are certainly not doing their job as leaders and teachers of young people in terms of graduating, whether they be athletes or non-athletes, at our academic institutions. So again, I think leadership as a coach, the role model you play, gives you the responsibility for the academic success of your players, but you certainly do not have sole responsibility for that.

Today's environment makes it increasingly more difficult to try and be a leader, to try and effect change, to try and set standards and values because society has changed more drastically than ever before. It's more difficult today to give good examples and to teach a set of values to young people that are going to be receptive to it. Today, it's an era of challenging authority. It's a day that our leadership abilities are going to constantly questioned by those that are supposedly going to be led. The challenges for us as leaders today are as great as they've ever been and as exciting as they've ever been because the young people under our direction ask why they're doing things more than ever before. In years past, when we were told to do something by our coaches, we would respond and we would do it. Today's athlete wants to know why you're doing it, how long you're going to do it, what effect it's going to have on them and their performance. Everything you do as a coach, as a role model and as a leader, has to be laid out in a more concentrated, better organized way than ever before. This is a great opportunity for all of us in intercollegiate athletics to really show our leadership capabilities.

To stand up in front of our athletic teams and say this is how we're going to practice and this is why we're going to practice and to do it this way. To be willing to have an athlete walk into your office and say, "You know Coach, I really don't get anything out of this particular drill and I really don't think this is very good." To be able to take that input from that athletes and not respond in a negative way to him, to be able, as a leader of young people, to sit down with that athlete and go face-to-face with him and explain to him exactly why you're doing certain things. Twenty years ago, we didn't have to do that. Today, we do it constantly. Again, in looking at leadership and the role that a coach plays, the responsibility he has in that role, he certainly has to be able and willing to do that in today's world.

One last element of leadership that has been touched upon and is very critical, is criticism. With leadership and with personal achievement, come all of the accolades and all of the nice things we all enjoy as we strive for success. We all want to be known as the best at what we do. But, with that leadership and with those accolades, also come the criticism. None of us enjoy them. No one in their right mind can truthfully stand up and say they enjoy being criticized or they enjoy not having people speak well of them. With leadership comes that criticism. There's a saying that the kite that soars the highest is the one that flies into the wind. Certainly, in our world today of intercollegiate athletics, we are faced with many, many, many, huge challenges. Our world is changing and change is good. We've got to be flexible. We need to look at change and we need to change where change is necessary and where change will bring improvement. For those people that are calling for change, we need to make sure we listen to what they're saying. We need to make sure that we look at the direction the change is going to go. Those who are calling for change have to be willing to accept the criticisms of those who don't want change. They've got to be willing to take the pressure and the heat that comes from those who don't want to change. Conversely, those who don't want change, that those that see some inherent good in some of the systems that we have need to be willing to stand up and take the criticism that comes from those who want change. They also have to be willing to stand up and make a commitment for their cause and to fight for the things they believe in. These are all things that are encompassed in the role and the responsibility that comes with leadership and coaching.

All of us today have a much greater challenge than ever before because as society has changed, our world has changed. It's going to be a great deal more interesting and a great deal more challenging for all of us to meet the needs of the 1990's and into the next century as we look upon all of the things that are facing coaches and athletic directors today. The role of leadership is critical and as vital as it's ever been in the history of our sport. I hope that the leadership that we receive from coaches, from athletic directors, etc., is as hopeful and as dynamic as we've ever had because we certainly are in need of great leadership today. I believe strongly in the role of the coach. I believe strongly in his responsibility as a leader and the leadership that we have throughout the NCAA, throughout intercollegiate athletics, from all quarters, is as active and more vocal than ever before. I think we're going to go on to great things in the future. I'm excited to be a small part of it and I'm excited to see a lot of things that are happening in terms of trying to make sport for all of us a much better thing. Thank you.

Vince Dooley:

Thank you Terry. We've heard from a great cross-section of coaches dealing with a great cross-section of student-athletes on leadership. I'll start with the first question. How do coaches maintain control on one hand and yet, give their athletes the freedom, the flexibility, the autonomy that they need in order to be effective? Which brings into question what we might call leadership power. Better still, why do student-athletes follow their coach with total commitment? Do they follow out of fear? Do they follow out of rewards and benefits they might receive which could be called utility power? Or, do they follow because they believe in the coach and what they're trying to accomplish, which might be called principle power? How does a coach react in a crises? Because actually, coaching in the highest level, was a series of crises. What type of leadership quality is used in crisis -coercion, utility or principle? Or, is there a combination of the three?

George Raveling:

I honestly didn't think football coaches were that smart. Vince, you should be teaching. I would suggest that there are a variety of factors that influence people to perform under given leadership. A friend of mine is fond of saying that everybody that's in heaven isn't in heaven because they love God. Some people are in heaven because they feared Him. I think some players respond positively because they love that coach and he manifests that love for him. There's a shared vision. There are shared goals and they share the work load. We see visible evidence around the country today of coaches who operate out of fear and have successful and winning teams.

When I was a youngster, much like Barbara, growing up, I was very fond of those people who instructed me. My homeroom teacher in senior high was a nun named Sister Emmanuel. One of the things she was fond of saying to us was that there's many roads that lead to Rome. I would suggest that there is no one leadership style that has a benchmark on success. I would suggest that there are a variety of leadership styles that produce successful individuals and successful teams. We have to identify that leadership style that best fits George Raveling or best fits Vince Dooley. Then, we utilize that leadership style. My own personal styl is believing in shared values, shared vision, shared goals and shared work load. I believe that we all get in th, same boat and row in the same direction.

Today, coaches have an awesome responsibility. Sometimes it frightens me to think of the responsibility that we have. Our president asked me if I would have problems asking someone for a million dollars. I said I didn't think so. I think I'd ask people on a yearly basis for something far more substantial than a million dollars. He said, "What's that, George?" I said I ask people on a yearly basis to entrust their children to me That's the most valuable possession that they have. When those children are entrusted to us, it's a frightening experience. I told a group yesterday about a boy on my team named Mark Boyd. He's from Stone Mountail1 Georgia. When I signed Mark, the last thing Betty Boyd said to me was, "Coach Reveling, I don't want no foolishness out of you now. Look, I'm sending this child all the way across America to Los Angeles and I expect you to treat him like I would treat him. Use the same discipline that I would use. I expect you to be the daddy that this child doesn't have." I told the group yesterday, that in 21 years as a head coach, I've onl) coached seven black kids that had a dad in the home. Somebody has to fill that void. So, I think we have all awesome responsibility today and I think that sometimes we're pressured into situations of win, win, win, when I really think the biggest victories never take place on the basketball court. Sometimes in life you can win and still lose and sometimes in life you can lose and still win.

John Cook:

Athletes today are different than they were 20 years ago. They're smart. They want to know why you doing something and what for. There had better be a good reason. I believe that we ought to set the expectations high, challenge them and provide a good role model, not only with myself, but with my entire coaching staff, so that they have good role models around them. Let them see how hard the coaches are working and how important it is. Also, stress and teach them the value of a scholarship and what it means be able to go to a university and get an education and be an athletic competitor and all the rewards that con from that are memories that they'll cherish for the rest of their lives.

Again, it's expectations. It's asking them to meet the challenges that you set before them and explain to them how we're going to get there.

Barbara Jacket:

You probably don't want to hear what I have to sayanyway. When I retired in '91, I told the coaches under me that you have to know when to fold and you have to know when to hold. Anybody who plays poker knows what I'm talking about. Some of the kids, you can talk to and they will respond to you. Other will rebel and walk away. It's an individual thing, especially being in track and field. They come in differeI molds. An athlete comes to you and tells you I don't feel like practicing. The hurdler comes to you and tell you that he hit the hurdle yesterday and I just don't want to practice. They need to feel that you care about them, but at the same time, they need to care about you. It's a new ball game. I promise you. You have to go about it your way. I've done it my way, but that won't work now though. Thank you.

Terry Donahue:

I'm one of the coaches George referred to. I can't remember the question. I'm kidding. I think I've learned as much about working with young people from having three daughters at home as I have in the 1 years of being a head football coach. When you have children of your own, you find out in a hurry that ( of your children, although each from the same biological parents, are uniquely different, so different at til1 that it's astonishing. When you work in a team concept, you have to look at each of your individual players and you have to treat them fairly. You have to treat them consistently, but at the same time, you have to treat them differently. My wife and I do not discipline our three children exactly the same. Their sensitivity levels are different. Their responses to criticism are different. When you're working with athletes, in essence, you're dealing with, individuals in a sense, that are your children. Treat your athletes in that same way and in that fashion. I've come to believe that as long as your consistent and as long as you're fair, yet you deal with them on an individual basis and recognize their individual differences, you can have a better effect and greater response.

In years past, we could all sell and get young people to buy into the concept of team. Team, team, team is something that you could constantly strive for and emphasize with your athletes. Today, it's a great deal more difficult to do that. The individual has become the focus of attention. Vince referred earlier in the panel to the letter from the president of Wake Forest who talked about verbal misconduct and various actions that were not in the best interest of sportsmanship and the codes of conduct in athletics. I think all of us are fighting that more than ever before because athletes today, be they male or female, have a very strong desire to express themselves individually, outside of the context of the team. It's increasingly more difficult, as far as I'm concerned, to try and weave that individuality into the team mode and into the team concept. One of the real challenges of coaching today is finding the happy ground, the medium, where you can be satisfying their call for individuality and at the same time, your desire as a coach for team work and cooperation and team emphasis as opposed to that individuality. There lies the challenges for the 90's.

Vince Dooley:

Thank you. Well, there's no question that it's challenging to find that balance, but it suffices to say that coaches are leaders only as long as they have the respect and loyalty of their athletes. Obviously, all of these coaches here have. Unfortunately, our time is up so, you'll have to ask any questions individually.

Let me thank our panel for a superb discussion.