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(Tuesday, June 12, 9:15- 10:15 a.m.)


This session involves handling stress and time management. I suspect that a number of us are here to relieve stress. We are fortunate today to have two well qualified speakers to share their expertise on these two important topics. Professor Bobbitt received his B.S. and M.B.A. from the Ohio State University and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to coming to Ohio State in 1966, he was an assistant professor of finance at Ohio University and director of management-publications for the American College of Life Underwriters. Professor Bobbitt's major teaching and research interests are in organizational behavior~nd organizational design. He has published numerous journals and is an author with others of Organizational Behavior, Its Understanding and Prediction. He is currently co-authoring a book, Organizational~, to be published in 1985. Professor Bobbitt is professor and chairperson of the Faculty of Management and Human Resources, College of Administrative Science, Ohio State University. He is active as a consultant and teacher in management developme~t programs in both private and public sectors and I found out this morning that he also has been actively involved with the intercollegiate athletic department and the participants at the Ohio State University. He assists in recruiting athletes to their program and advises doctoral candidates who are headed for athletic administration. Professor Bobbitt will discuss stress as it relates to our professional and personal lives. It is my privilege to introduce Professor Bobbitt.


Thank you. I would be remiss if I didn't thank Hugh Hindman, who back in December asked me if I would come down here and join you. I told him I would come on one condition, and that was I could still refer to him as my high school football coach, because that is where I first met Hugh and became acquainted with him. So I agreed to come down here. The other thing I like to do is come down with groups like this and talk about stress management because you are part of my stress management activity. You are a relief to me. That is, I find it much easier and much better to share ideas about stress and be with you rather than be back at Ohio State and try to manage. So, you are part of my stress management activity. What we are going to do is, if you will look at the screen, share with you first the definition of stress and then we are going to look at the source of stress. Joe is going to share with yo4 some tools for handling stress. Let us look in terms of a simple definition. Stress basically is a condition arising from the interaction of people and their environment and is characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning. Unfortunately, todayof course, the major deviations that we see are alcoholism, drug addition, and chemical abuse in terms of substances used. But there are many others. For example; absenteeism, tardiness, suddenly errors start showing up that we didn't expect before, and so what we want to do now is take a look at what are the sources of stress.

The first source I want to look at and I think has a major impact relative to your area is to look at the organizational sources of stress. I have broken these down into two areas. I am going to share some ideas with you as I go through here, at least from my work, and some of the work I have been doing, particu- larly relative to college athletics. I see some of the changes that are changing your occupations, relative to these two areas. First of all, certainly a major source of stress is the area of the processes of the organization. Its policies, its structure and its processes and I think we all have seen a lot of changes here and this is becoming a source of stress for individuals in administrative positions. If nothing else, particularly in A and B and C. The legal environment in which we are currently living has changed all of our lives on the college campus. Most of us across the United States are no longer dealing with people in a local parental concept. We are now dealing with adults. Once they turn 18, they are adults. The other thing is that because they are adults, many of our procedures have changed. I assume most of you are involved in this, so let me just give you one quick example relative to policy structure processes. When I started teaching, if I sawa student in an examination that I thought was cheating, you could pretty much go up, take the paper away and say it is over. You are getting an F in the course. Under the current laws and processes if a faculty member sees a student and thinks they are cheating, they must first take action to maintain the integrity of the exam. The second action they must do is to gather all evidence and then notify the students that they are being accused of cheating. In my case they would come to me as a chairman and present all evidence to me. I then interview all parties involved and decide if we have enough evidence for due process to go to accusation. I then ask the provost office to call a hearing committee in which there is nowa hearing in which we must testify to why we think this student cheated. Of the eight cases I had last year, six of the students were represented by attorneys. If the student is found to be cheating, then we are told what action to take, but we must destroy all records. We can never tell anybody that that student was caught cheating. That's a quite different world. Other changes are certainly the policies relative to E EO, Equal Employment Opportunity and discrimination. So what we are seeing today is a lot of changes relative to policies and processes.

Now let me just for a minute look at Part B. As Kit mentioned, I sit on exams and work with doctoral programs in sports administration. One of my favorite questions is Part B. Assume you have taken a job at a small school, college, university, whatever; where would you locate the athletic department? This is becoming one of the major questions across the country, and that is who doe~ the athletic department report to? Is it the Vice President of Business, the President of the university or should it be under the Provost of the Academic Program? You are going to see this question all across the country and you are going to see a lot of questions being raised about structural changes. This also means that ~he policies are going to have to be changed. One of the major questions that is being raised as I travel around and work with academic administrators is what is the proper relationship and how do we get there between athletics and the academic side. Of course, unfortunately, I am not saying this as a bias, but I think for many of you in your job, a lot of the controls are not in your hands. That is, with the pro athletes and the money being offered today, it makes it very difficult. I have been recruiting athletes now for over 20 years, and I find it harder and harder to convince a young kid who is really talented that education is going to mean something. Particularly, when he sees the contracts that are being offered, etc. So what I am saying is certainly one of the major sources of ~tress for all of us is the organization and certainly the changes in organizations and policies.

Let's go down to the job demands and characteristics. Certainly working conditions imply some stress for most of us; probably not as bad as they are in manufacturing. Interpersonal relationships are a lot tougher today. This country is running one of the great social experiments of the world and that basically is that heterogenity survives. We no longer have the right to ask anybody to march by my drums. All I am allowed to ask them to do is to perform, and if they perform, they can kind of follow the drum that they want. So we find today that interpersonal relationships are more difficult. There are ei~ht differences. For example, I tell my wife that the faculty that I chair seems more like my children than they do a faculty and the other day I found out why. I was talking about two of my children who are now well over 20 basically wasting money to go to some concert in Cleveland, Ohio. They drive up there, spend all of their money. Two of my faculty members at the luncheon asked which concert is that, then said we are going. One of them also notified me when I made a statement that she was born in 1953. So what I am saying is basically interpersonal relationships are challenged because of age differences. We have other differences of heterogenity and it is a lot different world we live in as we meet with our peers.

Job demands are much greater today. Hopefully, the other thing we are going to see here and I would like to see a little increase in stress on this, is a return to expected performance. One of the problems in this country that we have gotten away from, and I have this on a list of things my daddy lied to me about, was that basically we've gotten away. People think that they ought to be paid for showing up and we have gotten away from being paid for performance. I have a faculty member who I've given 29 zero increases in pay since I have been chairman, and I have a faculty member that wears a button that says, pay rise now. Well, I have a button that says performance now. I have no understanding what it means when somebody says you didn't give me or I can't afford your raise, because I usually tell people I can't afford their perfor- mance. I think we are going to see that job demands are going to increase and with job demands in terms of, what I want you to see as we go through this and I think Joe's definition will help you, is that we are going to teach you how to adapt and cope with stress. What you have got to understand, as we go through here, is that stress is part of the territory. So it is not something we can continually use as an excuse, and if you can't adapt and cope with the levels of stress, then maybe we ought to start looking for a different occupation. All I am saying is it's certainly there and we have got to deal with it.

I think one of the major changes you are going to see is in Item D, and that is role characteristics. I think you are going to see a lot of changes in the expectations of the role of the athletic director and those people working in athletics. This pertains to the presidents of the universities, to the trustees and to the booster club. A doctoral exam question I wrote last week asked the candidate that wants to be an athletic director, how do you maintain competitive programs, meet all of the other requirements in terms of women in athletics and at the same time maintain the academic levels that are being demanded? I think these are serious questions being raised today, and what happens is in the old days perhaps you could play games by scoring on one but not the other. What is happening today is that in the role of characteristics you have to score well on all of them. I think this is going to add to at least the stress levels for a lot of people in college athletics.

Now the next one is you, and you can't really talk about stress unless you know something about your- self as an individual. On these items I have up here, maybe in some of the other work you do, there are tests I could give you on all of these. But let's look first at career concern. Certainly in one of the career concerns where many of us create stress is that I feel that I am under promoted. I am not being used to my abilities of skills to the level that which I think I can achieve. Another one is in terms of getting ov~r promotion. The major book that got the top press on this was the Peter Principle. People get promoted to their level of incompetence. Basically, we raise as an individual career concern to be either I haven't achieved what I think I should or I've gone too high.

The second one is mid-career crisis. I am supposed to be an expert on this. I was told I went through mine last year. That's my faculty. They said it is time for me to go through my mid-career crisis. I think this is the area where you sit down, most of you have been there. But when you reach that age, 40 or so, you kind of start taking a look backwards and you start trying to figure out what have I really accomplished. You wonder what have you really attained, and then you start thinking about doing something differently. You can see what happened to me in my mid-career crisis. They made me a chairman. I think you probably know that adds to the crisis. You become chairman for one of two reasons. One reason is they figure you can no longer do research and teaching and the best way to protect the students in the university is to make you a chairman. The other reason is that you hope that they need someone with ability and skills to direct the department. But certainly for all of you, it looks like that mid-career time. '~ere am I heading? What am I accomplishing?

Well if nothing else, this is my first trip to your Convention. It looked like a lot of you are going to have to learn the computer. For the last five years I have taken my Christmas break and have gone back to learn the math I never learned. I've learned how to talk to computers. I have learned all of the things that I didn't understand at lunch that my young faculty were talking about. Not only the young faculty but the students. So all of us to date face this problem of obsolescence, and knowledge is being generated very quickly and we must keep up. What about unmet expectations and goals? The easiest way not to have these is just don't have any. But then in all of our courses we teach you to have a career path. So in a sense, we tell you to set some goals. Then the problem is that if they are unmet you are going to have stress. Hopefully, what we are going to share with you are ways to meet those goals and to meet those expectations.

Job insecurity is a big one today. Fortunately for me, as a professor they give yo~ tenure, and that is supposed to alleviate the insecurities. The first president I ever worked for said that tenure didn't promise you a good job. So one of the men that wasn't doing a good job was given his whole teaching assignment on the branch campus. So one night he drove ninety miles, The next night he drove loo miles, and the next night he drove 45 miles. He said, "I don't like this job," and the president said, "well you can resign." He said, "but I have tenure," and the president said, "well you can resign." So what I am saying is I think a lot of us today certainly don't meet these demands. Well all of these things add up. If you don't meet these demands, then you are going to have job insecurity facing you. Of course, the problem is that it is also at the mid-career area. Then you have got some real problems. Where do I go next, etc.?

Now let's look at yourself. This is a fun area in terms of taking a look at yourself and seeing what you know. How many of you read the book on the Type A,Type B Behavior? I think a lot of you know what happened. For a long time in this country we were trying to find out about heart disease and why so many people are checking out early. Basically one of the things we went through was cholesterol. But we have a natural experiment in the world; and that is that the orientals have one of the highest cholesterol diets in the world and yet they are not checking out like our people. We became suspicious of this. One of them is from Ohio State and basically what we found was that the orientals protect their managers from stressful situations. So, there is'not the interaction effect. A friend is on the faculty and I said, "you weren't at the meetings for the last four weeks, where have you been?" He said, "I had a heart attack and have been in the hospital." This is the guy that is doing the research. I have read this book on Type A, Type n behavior. You better read this because I think you are Type A also, and I am. Let me just give you some indicators. If you are type A person, you are the kind of person that thinks that when you are going to the meeting red lights are against you and the person in front or you is slowing down. When you get there your veins start popping out and you get red. You also believe that you are really valuable because what you feel is that you really have to put in the hours today because if you don't get it done today it will be left over for tomorrow. Now the interesting thing about Type A people is that they leave a lot of things for tomorrow because they check out early with the work undone. The Type B behavior person just kind of goes along and takes life easy. It will get done, someone will be there.

You could almost do some little checklist. Check yourself when you drive a car. Check yourself for your anxiety levels. Check whether you are going to miss the meeting or not. You almost feel like the world can't run unless you are there. If you combine Type A behavior with cholesterol or your pipes haven't been cleaned out; if you eat too much raw meat; if you haven't been doing aerobics then what happens is now comes the stress and now comes the big one. In other words, it;s just like sending the athlete into the game without conditioning. That is what we found, so it's not a simple little problem.

This is how the Type A and the stress go together. If you are a highly anxious person, this just magnifies the stress level. If you are in a stressful situation, you just get very anxious and the stress level just increases and multiplies. The worst thing that you can do in anxiety, and maybe some of you do this, is to prelive experiences. If you have to give a talk like this morning; or if you have to run a big meeting or if there is a big situation to come up, you prelive the experience in your dreams. You also prelive it as though you know no one showed up or no one paid attention to you. The interesting thing with high anxiety people is that when you actually go through that experience, there is a multiplier effect.

The drainage is even more the second time around because you have already wasted a lot of energy on pre- living it. So this is how stress really impacts upon us.

Let's move on to internal/external focus of control. Well I guess the best way to do this is to imagine I am a horserace handicapper and, therefore, I am an internal. I was sitting at a racetrack one day and the first two races were the two I picked. I made over $2.000 on a $60 bet in the first two races. Now if you look at my racing form it had red blood allover it. I told them at breakfast I thought all numbers were fixed to the second because my dad taught me that when I was seven years old. Some woman sitting next to me said, "Boy are you lucky!" Now she's an external. I turned to her and I said, "you just observed skill. not luck." Now notice what an internal is. An internal is a person that thinks their ability and skill can be used to control their environment. The nice thing is that if we succeed we take all of the glory, but the stress comes if we fail. '¥hat happens? We have to take responsibility for failure as well as success. The external believes the people succeed by dumb luck and, therefore, if you make it, you are just lucky. The only reason you made it more than I did, is that you are just luckier than me. A beautiful world that the external lives in right? They fail; they just weren't lucky. They make it; they were just lucky. So what we find is the internal, and of course, most people that go into management positions are internal people. They are people that believe they make a difference. Then combine this with the Type A.

Ambiguity; that's a lot of words. What this says is when the world gets fuzzy, how good are you at dealing with it? There are some people that have a low tolerance for ambiguity. Those are the people that have everything one, two, three, four. They live; some of us strive on this stuff. I was trying to increase Kit's stress. She didn;t know whether she was going to have a speaker this morning. L started out at 6:00 yesterday morning and I'd be talking about being anxious. I am doing a program that is not supposed to end until 5:00 and my plane takes off at 5:00. Now fortunately~ I offered to have the group vote that we would only give them 45 minutes for lunch instead of an hour and a half, and I persuaded them to vote my favor. I got to the airport at twenty to five and made my plane down here and got here. L hope we will be back for my 10:00 meeting tonight. Now why I am sharing that with you is I like an ambiguous word. A11 messy. It's fun, isn't it? Kind of not knowing what is happening next. There is excitement here, but also for the person who has a low tolerance to ambiguity, who hasn't seen the agenda, doesn't know the people, doesn't know how they are going to fit together. That is a real tough world for them. If you have high tolerance for ambiguity, you like messiness and you know things will work out. That is flexibility rigidity. If you are a highly flexible person, then situations are going to be less stressful because you can adapt and cope a lot easier. If you are very rigid, you interact with those organization sources. If you are highly rigid you can't understand why things aren't being done like they always were. Why do we have to do it this way? People do this rather than being adaptable, being able to put up with the new ways and the new processes. So the more highly flexible you are, the better you are at dealing with stress.

Introvertion/extrovertion; most of you are probably aware of those. Extroverted people tend to have a lot easier way of dealing with stress. Things don't bother them in the social world as much. The introvert has a little more problem. What I shared with you basically is that first of all, one of the major sources of stress is the organization you work in. What I am doing here is that I am focusing on your role in the organization. Let me point out that another factor that is added to all of this is certainly our external role. That is our role as spouses, as parents and as members of volunteer organizations. If we've had a lot of changes in the internal organization; we've had a lot of changes in the external organization. I envy my grandfather and my father's role because the roles were very well defined. The kids knew who they were and what their place was in this structure. The spouses knew.

Now I don't know about the rest of you, but I have this feeling that I am going to have 40-year old people eating at my dining room table.

My daughter spent 18 years with one goal in life, moving out. It took her a year and a half to move back. She is getting married on September 1 but said, "that still means you pay my tuition ss long as I want to go to school, right dad?" So now I have a daughter and her fiance, so we keep on adding rooms. The other day I was asked by my wife, "why are we paying my aon's apartment and he's not going to school or anything?" I said, "because we don't have any room for him at home becauae we moved these other people in." My gradfather would come home and say, "I have two weeka for vacation and we are going here and I want you to be ready",and you were. I come home and there is a note that says went on vacation if you care to join us, here's where we are. So what I am saying is in fact as the changing role, I have more women on my faculty than any faculty in the business school. What I find is that they kid me about how good I am, at least working with the women and not having the newattitude. I developed that new attitude when I married my wife 24 years ago. She taught me a whole new approach to life and the role of the spouse. My 23 year old daughter reinforces it every day. So what I am saying is we have shared with you at least right now the internal, but certainly you combine that now with the external and what do you have? You have a chance for a lot of different sources of stress. Then combine that with your own individual characteristics and if you are Type A, highly anxioua, internal, have a low tolerance for ambiguity, rigid and are an introvert, I don't know what we are going to do other than find you some other place. Maybe you can put puzzles together or something. But what I am going to do now is turn it over to Joe and maybe he can help you out. Thank you.


I am a stand-in today for Dick, who with Kit put together this session. The reason Dick is not here is because he is going through a stressful situation. It is a result of poor time management and he can blame it on his daughter who is getting married this week, which is creating the stress for him. The poor time management was in her timing. Our next speaker is certainly no stranger to those of you who have been associated with NACDA's Minagement Institute. A member of the Institute'. faculty from its inception, Dr. Joseph Schsbacker is a professor of management at Arizona State University. He is a graduate of Temple and he holds an M.B.A. and a Ph.D. from U.C.L.A. He is currently a lecturer and consultant on management at Arizona State and he has served as vice president and dean of the summer sessions at Arizons State. His list of publications is exceptionally long. It covers financial and management areas. He is a retired Colonel in the Marine Corps and he has been directly involved with numerous civic and professional organizations, serving on the Arizona and National Boards of the American Cancer Society. He is a past president of the National Council for Small Business Management Development and is past president of the United States Sports Acrobatics Federation. A former acrobat gymnastic competitor himself, Joe is here to illustrate to you how to be an acrobat with time, using the tools of time in your behalf.


Thank you very much Mickey for that very gracious introduction. May I put you at ease, those of you who have not been in Level 3 of the Management Institute about something that was related to my background? At one point in time I was vice president of Arizona State University. At that time we had 38,000 students at the institution, which represented a somewhat stressful job. When I went home that night, the president asked me to consider changing my role from the management department chairman, to that of vice president of the university. I said that night to my wife, isn't this a terrific opportunity for us and Dorothy came back with the observation that the idea of being a vice president is not so big because she said you know how many vice presidents the banks have. Well, that took a little bit of the wind out of my sails. The next thing Dorothy said, was that the place she did her shopping, which is called the Payless Markets in Arizona, had a vice p.resident in charge of every individual product they sold. Now I would like to check out fact versus fiction, so I called the next morning early to the Payless Market and I asked for the headquarters for the vice president in charge of the most unusual product that came to my mind at that time of the morning. Please, may I speak to the vice president in charge of prunes? The lovely voice on the other end of the line came back with a question -packaged or bulk? It doesn't matter that you are chairman of your department. I'm going to make an observation. I think this man here whom I've just heard will someday be a vice president of a university or something. He's not going to stop at being a chairman, based on what I've already heard. But it doesn't matter what your title is, Mike, Colonel in the Marine Corp, Joe or Mickey, executive director of the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans. The title doesn't mean a thing. You cannot overcome the ideas expressed by my colleague in the function of stress and how it gets the job done in management.

I've been asked by Dick ramburo, who is my colleague at Arizona State University, to relate to the subject of tools of time management, following the ideas of stress expressed by Randy. To start out I would like to share with you my very favorite definition of management, which is one sentence. This particular sentence tells me what I need to share with you folks about the idea of management. This one sentence is by a man named Bob Greenleaf, who was formerly a vice president at the American Telephone & Telegraph Company -it's on the overview: Management Ability is the ability to be able to state a goal and to reach it through the efforts of other people to satisfy at the same time, those whose judgments must be respected under conditions of stress. Gentlemen and ladies, does that not define your jobs back there in the University of Adversity, where you perform? It certainly does to me, and the ideas which were expressed by my colleague prepares the idea to look at this.

May I now turn to the subject of time management as it relates to this particular topic? If you have $86,400 that are given to you every day in a bank account, which, at the end, is not any longer available to you, you cannot hoard it; you cannot save it; you cannot use it beyond 2400 hours; but each day you get another $86,400; I would ask the question, how would you use it? Normally I get some responses Let me give you the kind of answers that would come from a group. I would give it to my children; I would give it to Ohio State University's Athletic Fund; I would give it to NACDA to perform more work for the Management Institute; one guy would say I go to Las Vegas and blow it all; this guy here might go to the races and win it all; some would say I would buy a 450 SL Mercedes in Arizona, which costs, $45,622 right now. The point I am attempting to make is that the goals or the way you would use $86,400 in any given day would be different among us. Each of us has exactly that, 86,400 seconds. It is metered out to Joe and Mickey in the same way every day, as it is metered out to each one of you. How we use that is a personal choice and related to that is one of the functions of stress and time management. That is what you choose as a goal or the use of that limited resource, you must then live with. May I suggest a way therefore; to come about or look at this relationship: I. We all have exactly the same amount of time, 2. It is a non-expandable resource, 3. It can be measured -anything which can be measured can be planned for -any- thing which can be planned for can be relatively speaking controlled and therefore -time is something we can do something about.

We do not have to be, as Randy pointed out so well, the victim totally of the external environment. Most of the problems of people who have stress in time managing, normally will be found to have stress within their own personal uses of that time. I'll give you a broad view of how to look at the subject of time. If you were to consider a round circle which is divided into a pie of three parts, it would have eight hours each day for work, eight hours each day for sleep, and eight hours each day for personal kinds of activities. I know that is not standard for all people, but let's use that as an example. If you were to think about how to improve upon your role as a athletic director during those set aside eight hours of work, there are basically only three ways in which you can do it. One way is to steal from one of the other two resources. That is to say steal from sleep or take away from personal activities and familyactivities. How many of us do this? Most of us do it. The point, however, is that we should not do it in such a manner that it becomes one of our role characteristics in the use in terms of our time. I can tell you that you folks know this better than a university management \professor. When one steals from sleep or other personal activities, the total result of the time saved from that is not as productive as the time that could be used if you have your normal kind of relaxation following sleep, etc. That is one way to save or improve upon that workload activity called being an athletic director.

A second way would be to work smarter not harder. That is to say, look at the way you do things; do you use paperwork properly; are you properly delegating things that you could be delegating; is the organizational structure with which you are relating and with which you have some control over made in the way in which the goals of the organization are satisfied? In other words, there are ways in which you could improve upon time. The third way and the key is to do only the priority items for you that exist during those eight hours. It is sometimes referred to as the Parato Law (Parato was an Italian ~conomist at the turn of the century) but it is also known to many of you by the expression the 80-20 rule. That is to say, if you were to take ten things that had to be done by you in your role as an administrator this week and were to force yourself to list those in the quality performance required of those ten items, the first two items would give you 80 percent quality. The remaining eight items would only give you 20 percent results, performance and quality. Where do you think most people put their time? They do it among the ei8ht items. They say I'll get this out of the way or I'll get rid of this little job. They will procrastinate the biggies. When you do this, you are playing with what I call Kiddy Kar activities and the Cadillacs and the Mercedes are flowing by you and you don't even know it. So, that would be one way. You can steal from someplace; you can work smarter or you can prioritize.

Prioritizing is they key, a very important key. May I take those last two, working smarter and prioritizing. Working smarter means doing things the rfght way. Prioritizing means doing the right things. If I happen to be the best typist in a typing pool, but I am the manager of that typing pool, I would be wasting my time in my role characteristic as a supervisor of typists. If I were to do that which others couldn't do during the week, I would be doing the work of my subordinates.

I have to share with you some ideas about the function of time management, which many of you will have heard about or seen in relationship to your experiences in other programs. For example, most of you perhaps have heard the name Allan Lakin. Allan Lakin has provided for us a series of ideas that relate to how you can improve upon your time management. I would like to share with you the key idea that Mr. Lakin expressed in his book. Here are the key recommendations that Allan Lakin gives about time management: 1, List goals and set priorities. I have already expressed the meaningfulness of that. 2. Make a daily to do list. May I just show you something that I would be lost without? It doesn't have to be fancy. This is a simple sheet upon which I take from my "intellectual thinking mind" the things that have to be done today. When they are done, I cross them off and forget about them. In other words, L do not let stress come into play on this. 3. Start with A's, not with C's. Of course, that is the Parato Law. 4. Ask yourself occasionally the questions, what is the best use of my time right now? I ask you not to leave the audience right now, but some of you could leave and should leave. 5. Handle each piece of paper onlyonce, that means after sorting. I mentioned earlier about A,B,C and D items. If you will think about your desk in a day, let's assume that the pile of letters that come from your secretary or assistant are this big. Put them into three piles. Arrange them in top order level, middle order level and low order jobs. Mr. Lakin says to get rid of the low order jobs immediately, having made the decisions that they are low priority for you. Put them in a C drawer. Then you leave those other two piles ready for you to work with and you work only with the A's. Now you pick up an A and start working with it. If it has something to do with somebody else in the organization that could do it better than you or should do it for you. then get it to that person immediately. Don't put that sheet in what is called a to-do basket or a follow-up file. How many of you do this? I've had a to-do basket and what happens is you throw it there. and as the day or weeks go by you then have a call to remind you of something that should have been done. You are looking for that piece of paper. While you are looking for that. you see six other items that will absolutely frustrate your day because of What they should have done for you. Handle each piece of paper onlyonce. Now. of course. there are obviously things which you can't do that way. but the idea is a good one. 6. Do it nowand don't procrastinate. When we talk about stress, pressure and frustration. procras- tination is one of the causes of that. \Vhy do we put off some things? Too big a job we say. It's an untasty job for us. If we have to tell that guy that he's not getting a raise for the 29th time. that's a distasteful function. The best way to handle that is to handle it and not to put it off. The role of frustration can only increase on that. May I just repeat briefly the six key items from Mr. Lakin's book: List goals. Set priorities. Make a daily to-do list. Start with A's not with C's. Ask yourself occasionally during the day or the week What is the best use of my time right now. Handle each piece of paper only once. Do it now.

Now let me turn to something that is related to all of that. When we talk about a key element of how best to produce that great resource called time. the idea of goals or priorities is a must for you to look at. We have all kinds of priorities that we must be related to. These are personal goals. family goals. religious goals. professional goals. management goals. athletic director goals and budgetary goals. These are goals which we have to look at and do something about. I would recommend or suggest to you that most of us really don't know relatively precisely where our time goes with respect to these goals. As I've said to my level 3 of Management Institute folks when we go into more depth on this. one way to understand that is to do a review of your time. It is a time resource management look. I don't mean by this one in Which you have to use every minute of the day to be precise about where your time went. If any of you are interested. I have a little sheet that describes a fifteen minute interval block of time measurement. With that kind of an inventory control, it takes only five minutes of your time during a day. About an hour of your time after two weeks of doing it. you will be surprised. You may think that you had control of all the things last week in this way. but when you actually keep a record of it. you will find that things are quite different than what you had expected them to be. A study that was made at UCLA about twenty-five years ago said that a well-planned. well-organized executive may put his day in proper order but his staff. his circumstances and other activities often dispense with his day in quite a different way. Does that make sense to you? The answer is absolutely yes as an administrator. Never plan for tomorrow a 100 percent input of the hours available to you for time. As an administrator. you should leave at least 20 percent unoccupied and unplanned. With the scheduling of these meetings right here today. one program ended at 9:15 and another began at 9:15. If you try to operate that way as an administrator you are going to have problems. You're not even going to know Why you had problems. You think you are being very careful about your time.

Let me turn to another element to which we must pay attention. delegation. Do not be that perfectly indispensable individual who thinks that he or she can get the Whole job done. Let me just read to you a very interesting statement which will then give me an opportunity to share an interesting poem with you about indispensability. Sooner or later. a person. if he or she is wise. discovers that life is a mixture of good days and of bad. victoryand of defeat. give and take. He or she learns that it doesn't pay to be a sensitive soul; that you should be able to let things go over your back; just like water goes over a duck's back. You should learn that he who loses his temper usually loses out. You learn that all people have burnt toast for breakfast now and then and therefore; you shouldn't take the other man's gripe too seriously. You learn that everyone carrying a chip on his shoulder is the kind of person who is easily able to get into a fight. You learn that the quickest way to become unpopular is to carry tales and gossip about others. You learn that buck-passing always turns out to be a boomerang and it never pays. The person Who looks at these kind of things soon comes to realize that the business. the department. and even the university could get along perfectly well without him or her. which relates to the idea of indispensability. The poem goes like this: Sometime when you think you are important; sometime when your ego is in bloom; sometime when you take it for granted that you are the best; the very best qualified in the room; sometime when you think that you are going to leave an unfillable hole; just follow this simple example. See how it humbles your soul. Take a bucket; fill it with water; put your hand in it up to the wrist. Pull it out. The hole that is remaining is a measure of how you will be missed.

You may splash all you please as you enter. You can stir the water. but stop and you will find in a minute it looks quite the same as before. The moral of this quaint example is to do the best you can. Be proud of yourself. but remember there is no indispensable athletic director. man or woman. Now. all I am saying here with that little poem is to be sure that you use the resources of people available to you.

In doing that you are going to get better performance for you. more of the kind of satisfaction that Randy was talking about, and in the long h~ul you and I will be better administrators of the limited resources of time that we have.

Let me then just say a word or two about some other tools that you might use in terms of time management. I would be lost without this little booklet. For me it represents a total year. When I open this little booklet up, for me, this only represents one full week. There were points in time in my life, for example when I was a vice president of a university, where this could not have done for me what I needed to do. When I would open up the page of that kind of a booklet, it would be one day with all the details that had to be related there. You use this not as a function of being a prisoner to it, but to let it serve you. I may say without question these kinds of tools have helped me very much. Let me give some very simple ones. Whenever you are preparing for something to be done in advance, don't over pre- pare too early in the game. I know some people who become so tight in terms of their preparation for something that they don't have time to deal with the energy or the lack of frustration to deal with during the times they work. So, one simple system for things that have to be done into the future is a simple folder labeled briefly. You throw ideas into it that come to your attention as the time goes by. When you come to the point in time which you must be prepared for, then you are ready to do the hard work to bring it into proper focus or perspective. Related to that is another kind of a tool, which I have always used at a desk. It was given to me by one of my favorite secretaries over time. This happens to be a folder that is leatherette w1th little tabs on it. When things come up that relate to days in which they must be done, I circle the date and time and throw it in. For example, I am to present a recommendation to the search committee for our chairman of the department of management. If it happened to be a Friday and I knew that I had to do a little bit of work and preparation for that, I'd throw it into a Wednesday file. Wednesday morning when I came in I looked it up and said Joe get ready for this report. It's a simple but helpful tool.

Another thing is to learn to read fast. How many of you, if you could read better and smarter, would be more effective on your job. If I don't see all hands then some of you are really not paying attention to what I am suggesting here. There isn't one person in this room who could not improve his or her reading capability at no matter what age we exist. I'll give you three rules right now that will help you be 10 percent better next week: I. Read fast~r than is comfortable. 2. Never regress. Do not allow yourself to say I'll catch up on that if I don't read it very well right now. 3. Read selectively. I do not read the Wall Street Journal fully every day. I read selectively and pick up the ideas that are important to me. Those three rules will improve your reading skills without taking a whole course, by 10 percent next week.

I know the time has just come to the end for our total session. I would like to wind it up with a couple of things that will be helpful to you. May I suggest to you that at sometime you must look and Bay to yourself, "what kind of a check-up quiz can I place upon me so that less stress and more effective time management are resultant for me in my job." Ask yourself, am I reading the right newspapers and magazines or am I taking full advantage of the various clubs that I belong to or should I let some of those member- ships go by. Do I belong to any associations or committees which do not serve the purposes or the goals of my life or my profession? Am I limiting myself to too small a group of friends1 Maybe that might be one of our problems. Let's expand our thoughts or ideas with respect to people we relate to. Have I become too grooved in my living routine? Do I go to work the same way every day? Do I think about doing the job the same way everyday? You should get a little bit of creativity in your life. Is my equipment for living up-to-date? HIn my 60th year," said one person, HI changed my whole idea about how I am going to creatively spend the rest of my life." What am I doing habitually that is wasting my time or energy?

Am I neglecting any particular phase of my life? That could be family, friends, profession or even physical health.

Let me just repeat the key elements of how you and I can increase our time input on those eight hours called professional work as an administrator: I. Increase the amount of time available. I call that stealing. 2. Do more work in the available time. I call that working smarter not harder. 3. Do only the important work in the time that is available to you in any given day. Obviously that represents the term priorities. I do have a list of books that I've gone through. If any of you are interested in six of these books, which are tremendous, I would be glad to give you a copy of those through the mail by receiving your card. Let me end with what both Randy and Joe and our good panel members, Kit and Mickey have tried to establish for you here today. Each of us becomes what is known as a true executive. From what I've read in magazines and Been in Sunday movie scenes, the true executive is he who resolutely and firmlyacts. He has the facts, speaks well, writes a splendid letter, but also listens even better. He cares about his men and their wives but never once meddles in their lives and works as long as anyone. He leaves his desk clean with the work all done. Who even on the darkest days can summon up a word of praise; he goes to church; he knows the pastor, but remains calm in any disaster. He is, of course, a sportsman too, topnotch with golf club, gun and canoe. The true executive, in short, is good at work and good at sport. He is resourceful, charming, a person of talents. He has all of these particular items. He is smooth; he has all of the items and I incidentally changed that generic term of men to people. The true executive is resourceful and charming. They are men of talents, possessed of perfect poise and balance, his words, his deeds, his aims all mesh. I'd like to Bee that son-of-a-gun in the flesh. Good luck to you.


Thank you Joe and Randy for a wonderful background and some very practical ideas that will help us all manage stress. There will be a business meeting following in about ten minutes.