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DRUGS, GAMBLING AND THE COLLEGE ATHLETE
(Monday, June 11, 2:00- 3:30 p.m.)

MARY ZIMMERMAN:

We are very fortunate to have three individuals here with us today who will go through all the different aspects of this area. The first speaker is Dr. Robert Murphy. He obtained his BA from Ohio State University and also his MD from Ohio State University. He is presently the head team physician for the department of athletics at Ohio State. director of the sectiQn of sports medicine and associate professor. department of preventative medicine. associate clinical professor. department of medicine. attending staff with the University Hospital and is a member of the NCAA Drug Education Committee. Please welcome Dr. Murphy.

DR. ROBERT MURPHY :

It is a pleasure for me to share a few minutes with you first, and we are going to try and leave some time at the end for questions so that we can have a session Where you will have an opportunity to ask us any questions. First of all today, I would like to say I am going to cover briefly the problem of drugs as we see them in college athletics. Some of this may seem old hat to you and you may have the statistics for these, but I think it helps in discussion of drugs, alcohol and gambling to have some idea as to the best of our ability to determine what the problem is at the college level. First of all, I would like to turn the first slide on back there and we will lower the lights. I will just give you an overview of the drug situation.

First of all, these are substances of no value in athletics and if you as athletic directors come in contact with this, I think it may be helpful for you to know this. Oxygen on the sidelines is of absolutely no value for the athlete. Food supplements, multi vitamins, mega vitamins, iron except for menstruating females, the carbohydrate loading which is kind of a popular thing with marathon runners at the present time which they fast from having any sugar and then eat a lot of sugar just before they race for two days although there is some difference of opinion, is of no value. Blood doping is at the present time considered unethical but is being done not so much at the college level but at the marathon level where they take blood from you and put it in the refrigerator and freeze it, and then three or four months later they give you your own blood back just before you race, supposedly to raise the oxygen content of the blood by having more red blood cells. These are the substances which we condemn. The other ones we don't necessarily condemn. We don't think they are probably harmful, but they are of no value. Localanesthetics to block large areas, narcotics, diuretics which are water pills being used by wrestlers and a lot of individuals who try to make weight, it sets off an electrolite problem in the body which sometimes can be fatsl. Beta blockers Which don't mean too much to mosL of you, but they are substances used to control heart rate, do not permit an athlete to raise his rate above about 110 to 120 degrees and they take these for various things like migraine headaches, certain heart irregularities, but they can be a dangerous thing in sports.

There have been a number of deaths reported in basal dialators. These are drugs that increase the circulation and they have no place in athletics. The amphetamines I am going to come back to in a moment and the anabolic steroids. The last on on that list is DMSO, which is a substance rubbed onto the surface to relieve pain. It is only available in a veterinarian type of a solution. It does relieve pain but it has some serious liver and kidney side effects by being absorbed, so we strongly recouunend against its use. Now a word about an"bolic steroids. I am going to let you turn the lights part way up if you would. The alloid steroid problem is a thoroughly new one that I did not face until the last eight to ten years, but these are substances that are very close to testostorones which have gradually increased in popularity among body builders, weight lifters and those who are attempting to put body mass on. For years we have been saying they don't work, but I think as we have been following these young people over the past ten years that it becomes obvious that they do work in some instances. Whether it is because it, gives them enough drive to be able to work harder and build up their muscles but there is a significant change in the looks of the body. It will add weight, some of Which is swelling or adema. It also probably increases the muscle mass, but it blocks the normal body's output of testostorones from the testicles and this has been reported to do all kinds of bad things to individuals. An increase in cancer of the liver has been reported. A 27-year-old body builder died about four months ago which got high publicity and this kid had been on a large dose of anabolic steroids. We use them in medicine in doses of about ten or 20 milligrams a day. The athletes are taking 506 or 600 milligrams a day in order to get the desired affect. I average about one call a week in my office, "would you prescribe anabolic steroids for me?" If I said yes to one individual I would have 40 of them in my office within p month because they run in a cult. They can 8o into any weight lifting outfit and have them or purchase them from the runner of that institution. The individual who runs it has the avsilability of it. So the kids can get the drugs on the street, but they sre dangerous drugs. It interferes with the ability later in life, in many instances of these people to have children, to be able to conceive. I have sat duwn with five or six of these kids and asked, "du you realize that when you are 35 you are going to have an uld man'.s arteries? You are going to have heart attacks? You are going to have strokes? It is going to interfere with your sexual functions?"

They said, "yeah, but I am only going to take them for six months doc, if I can just get my body built up, that is all I want to do." They really forget and will not accept the fact that ten or fifteen years from now this is going to be a bad drug. However, anabolic steroids are not illegal. They are a prescribed drug and you can find doctors in every city in this country who will prescribe them. The NCAA, which I am a member of, the Committee on Drug Education, is working out a plan to test for anabolic steroids in the calendar year g5-86 and that has some problems. Some very extensive tests are run. It runs about $100 to run a single unit for all the drugs including anabolic steroids and whether it is worth that I am not sure. This is what we are trying to debate at the present time.

Now let us talk about other substances that are harmful; first caffeine. You would not think this was a drug. About 80 percent of the athletes in the two surveys we have run in the past three years, will use caffeine regularly. Caffeine is probsbly not a problem if limited to sbout two cups, two cokes a dsy. Some of these youngsters will get to using 20, 18 to 20 cokes a day and this gives you a real high. Now it does not improve performance, but it does give them the same kind of response you get with amphetamines. Nicotine was interesting in our survey. I am sure ten years ago there were a lot of smokers on our athletic squad. The percentage at the present time is sbouttwo percent, but tha number using smokeless tobacco, Skoal, Copenhagen and the things they put in their mouth and on their guma is about 20 percent so they have simply substituted their nicotine habit from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco. It has the same side effects snd same danRers. It is pretty tough to tell athletes, however, you should not use these drugs when half of the coaches are using the drugs at the time they are out there on the field.

Alcohol, I am going to lesve to Dr. Hostetler to talk about. It is the most abused drug in the athletic community today. About 60 to 65 percent of all athletes regularly use alcohol.

Among the prescription drugs, the stimulsnts are first of all the amphetamines, snd the amphetamines are uppers. You can see the nicknames or the street names that are used for amphetamines. It is supposed to alleviate fatigue, supposed to increase alertness. It uplifts the mood, it will increase the initiative and self confidence of the individual, but it actually makes them agitated, much more aggressive and hostile, and sometimes they will get confused with poor judgement. I don't want to accuse every kid who jumps offside of being on amphetamines, but this hyper-activity that comes from this that makes a kid make a mistake which may cost the ball game in some sport, where they just simply make a stupid mistake. It does not improve performance. It depresses the appetite and may often cause unpredictable and irrational behavior. There is a great deal of psychological addiction in amphetamines, and once you start taking uppers, in order to get the same high, you need to take more and more of the drug in order to reach that same high. They end up finally crashing or having a downer from it. I think the important thing to learn about amphetamines is they do not increase performance. We had in our surveys about seven to Cen percenC use of amphetamines by athletes on a regular basis. On downers or stumblers, the qualudes or soapers that the kids use on the street are red devils, yellow jackets, rainbows,.etc. The body will gradually build up tolerance and what usually happens is they will be taking uppers and when they wsnt to come down, they take downers, then the next time they take uppers to get back up it becomes a vicious cycle. The downers are often worked with alcohol becsuse they have an addictive effect to them.

Now let us talk about the illegal drugs, marijuana and hashish. In our survey there was about a 22 percent use of marijuana and hashish on a regular basis in and out of season. Now that is kind of frightening to some of us old timers who have a hard time believing an illegal drug will be t!tis prevalent in our society. Rarely does an athlete use marijuana for the purpose of improving performance. They usually use it as a recreational drug as most of us use alcohol. And they have the feeling that it isn't any worse than alcohol. However, it is addictive and in some individuals terribly addictive. And being an illegal drug, it throws them into a society which the pusher or the one handling the marijuana is sttempting very hard to move them into a stronger drug. So the temptation of using marijuans and getting into other things is simply too great. They get a distortion of distance and time. They get bizarre and unpredictable behavior and eventually they get mentally hooked on them and this is a major problem in our college-level students today.

Cocaine, seven to 15 percent use which mayor may not surprise you. You wonder where they get the money for it, but at the college level it is mostly being provided by alumni, who in order to get the athlete to come to their homes on a Saturday night or be a buddy to them, they will provide then with the cocaine. Those of you in the Kansas City area may have read about the Kansas City Royals baseball players. This is exactly how they all got started. The guy had a lot of money. He wanted to be one of the guys, wanted to be able to have the ballplayers down to his house. He provided them with all the cocaine they needed and this is exactly what happens at the college level also. Rarely do they buy their cocaine at the college level. Then after they get hooked on the habit snd they need to have more and more cocaine, they become dealers themselves in order to obtain the cocaine for themselves. This is usually inhaled or snorted. It gives them a big rush. The kids who I have talked to who take cocaine say this is the greatest rush that has ever happened, but it only lasts sbout 20 minutes at the most, snd then they have a downer and they need more cocaine in order to sustain their high. They eventually get hooked to the point that the primary thing in their lives is to get more cocaine. It is not as physically addictive as some of the other drugs. but they do get addicted to it. And like all drugs. whenever there is a high there i3 a corresponding low.

The hallucinogen is not as plentiful as back in the early 70s, PCP. mescalene and some of the others. but there seems to be an increasing amount at the present time. One to three percent of the college athletes are using this. Very little heroin; I think we had two out of lOO athletes we surveyed said they were on heroin and is a tremendous drug if they ever get started on it.

Finally. recognizing the substance abuser these kids will be very nervous. suddenly may need large sums of money. their eyes will be bloodshot and they will have small pupils. They often have a body odor or their breath is bad. They will have skin changes. They will have acne. They will have emotional extremes; either they are hysterical. crying or laughing. They become anti-authority. Their disposition changes extremely. They become either stimulated or drowsy. They get appetite extremes. Either they don't eat at all or they crave sweets. They get a fear complex with paranoia. suspicious. they feel that their coaches are against them. people are against them. They then will get physically ill or will lose weight. They may get mental illness and begin to deteriorate from a health standpoint and they have moral ill health from that also.

I am going to let Jep talk a little bit more about dealing with the individual and substance abuse.

So if you will turn the lights up I will just finish up the next two or three minutes by making a couple of connnents.

Now what can we the individuals at the college level do about this? I think. first of all. we have to continue with our educational program. Now I think a one shot. once a year lecture by somebody who has been a previous drug user or is an authority is fine. but you cannot let it go at that. I think that it is important to try and develop an on-campus type of committee that c~n deal with it and there are many of consultants around who are doing this and doing a good job of it. Develop somebody on your campus who can work on this problem who can be a constant reminder to the coaches and to the athletes that if they have a problem they can seek help. The one thing that is true with all drug and alcohol addicts or individuals who abuse the substanee. unless they seek help and want help there is not much chance you can do much. Drug testing has become very. very popular and we are looking at that at the NCAA level. It is my opinion that drl.lg testing cannot be equated with what is going on at the Olympics. At the Olympics you have the Olymp1c Connnittee here and the athletes here and you are going to test all those athletes.

This is fine. you have no relationship. But at a college level you have recruited them. you are working with them academically. when you are eating with them. when you know their parents. when you live with them day by day and they are part of your familrif you are a coach. athletic director. team physician or trainer. And suddenly you say we are going to take you in the john and we are going to take urines on you today. You bring a cop and robber situation into that relationship. I do believe that the middle ground is to alert the students who you may do drug testing and then if you find a change in performance. if you find a change in attitude whether it be academic or be it on the field or whatever. then bring the kid in and say we would like to drug test you once a week for the next four weeks. This has to be done in advance. It has to be announced to the students before they come back in the fall. But this is one direction to go. Some colleges at the present time are doing a thorough drug testing program on-site and it is working in some instances. I have some misgivings personally with this. but I think drug testing is going to playa role here. But you can get drug testing done at any good general hospital that is accurate for the kind of things you want to use it for. I caution you. however. not to allow a single drug test to make a decision about scholarships or anything else because it should be done by a recognized lab and the process that checks it and double checks it. So those are some of the thoughts on this and in the question and answer segment we will be glad to go into some other items. Thank you.

MARYZIMMERMAN:

Thank you Dr. Murphy. Our next speaker is Dr. Jep Hostetler. also of the Ohio State University system. At the Ohio State University system in 1968 he received his Ph.D. He is currently the associate professor for preventive medicine and associate professor of psychiatry. Dr. Hostetler is responsible for obtaining a three-year career teacher training grant in substance abuse funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This grant provided the start of drug and alcohol abuse teaching training program for the medical students. residents and care professionals at the Ohio State University; Dr. Hostetler.

JEPTHA HOSTETLER:

Thank you. I am very glad to be here. I am not an athletic director, I am not married to one and I don't plan to be. I sometimes wonder how I end up in front of groups like this. I see people I know and that is kind of interesting. You bump into someone you did not expect to see at this kind of meeting and it is not always good to see someone you know. I used to live in Chicago and I'd take the train down into Evanston to go to my work and in the morning when it rained, I would take my umbrella, ride down to the office, get off the train and go to work. Well this particular morning it was raining. I had no umbrella and ran to the train, sat down, opened my book and when the train stopped I grabbed the umbrella from the little old lady beside me and beat it off the train. She stopped me and said, "young man," which made my day right there, "you have my umbrella." So I apologized profusely, went on to work and that afternoon my wife called and said, "Jep, bring home the umbrella, you have three of them down at work." So as an obedient husband I tucked the umbrellas under my arm got back on the train and who should I meet but the little old lady. She took one look at me and said, "you've had a pretty good day of it, haven't you." So it is not always good to see someone you know.

Our time is limited so I would like to talk about three separate items. Number one, I would like to talk about attitudes because I think attitudes are the most important things we need to look at in terms of drug and alcohol abuse, work training and education. Secondly, I would like to talk about the Johnson Model, about how people might get caught up in drugs and alcohol. Then if my time is not gone I would like to talk for just a moment about intervention. How we can intervene in an athlete's life if that person wants help or you feel you can help him. So we will start off with the slides if you will dim the lights.

Our attitudes are shaped a lot by what we see, what we have eXperienced, what we have felt and how we grew up. Most of us have attitudes that were given to us by our parents. And on college campuses, of course, we have advertisements that would show us that young people use Sony Walkmans and ads that make you sexy. If you drink in the daytime, you are common, but then when you go on vacation and have a drink you are much more sexy. There are ads that say there is fun to be had if you go for the booze. Now I am not opposed to drinking, but all these things shape our attitudes. Here is an ad where Tony Roberts talks about his first time. Now this is one of my daughter's magazines about the first time he had

Compare, Which is a drink not What you think it says but all the indications were there. Anyhow, our attitudes are shaped. As I grew up I had attitudes given to me by my parents. Here is one last ad.

It was in the Ohio State Lantern. It sort of suggests that when the date doesn't go well what you can do is go home and cuddle up with the real taste of beer. You have a problem; go for the beer. That will solve your problem. Anyhow back to my attitudes, in growing up we had seven kids at home and my parents kept alcoholics. Among them the first one I ever met, it was 4 o'clock in the morning. I was 12-years old, it was raining and I heard this man outside the window calling out for my father, "come get me, I don't know where I am." I felt pity for that man, nothing else, just pity. He was all muddy. He was yelling. He was lost. He was the first alcoholic I ever met.

Sometime later we were at a meeting. The whole family was there. A man drove his car up into the yard, he got out of his car and he had a gun, and he came toward the house. My father said, "okay, all the women and children get in the back room. We will protect you." Well my brother and I being adventurous sneaked out around and looked inside the car. In the car was a dead man with about 20 bullet holes in him. That is fear. Some alcoholics you meet make you fearful. The lady I took care of in Evanston for a while, I did not actually take care of her, I drew blood from her arms. She had slept in the dumpster and she was all covered with excrement. She smelled bad and as I turned her hand over to take blood from her arm, I looked under her fingernails and there were live maggots. That is repulsion. Some people are repulsed by people who use ,drugs or get intoxicated to the extreme. I remember one time Bill came home, one of the guys Who lived with us. My father had given him new paint clothes. He worked for my father's paint gang. When he came home he had sold his clothes, was barefooted and he was drunk. Now with seven children at home my feeling was one of anger. He made me mad. Why should he get new clothes, go out spend the clothes, get drunk and come home when we barely had enough to eat? Pity, fear, repulsion, anger, I don't know what attitude you grew up with, one might be admiration. I had an Uncle Fred, at a reunion he would come dressed in a suit, and he used to give us fifty-cent pieces. I liked him a lot and he was successful. I admired him and he was an alcoholic. He died 0 a liver disease. So Whatever attitude you have, it is something you brought to this room today from your past and the one that really affects us the most, I think is this one. In growing up I heard something on the radio like this, "I don't smoke, swear or chew or go out with girls who d9. It is demon rum, my friend, that will send you straight to hell." Booze was bad and if you drank booze you were bad and therefore people who over indulge in booze are moral degenerates. We get on the bandwagon of moral indignation or moral judgement. Therefore, anyone who uses drugs is bad. If we catch them, they are bad. All I am asking for you to do at this moment is to think what kind of attitude you have. These were mine. This is the mess that I brought with me. I live close to OSU campus. At 1:30 one morning not too long ago, there was a knock on the door. I went down to the door and there was a man standing there. He was a student and he said to me through the window, "I want to come in and sleep on your carpet." It is 1:30 in the morning, my pajama strings are broken and I am hold- ing up my pajamas with one hand. I am looking at this guy. I did not fear him, I had some pity. I was a little angry. He woke me up. I certainly did not admire him. The list goes on and on. -

What I am asking you to do is think abQut accepting anyone, including athletes for their personhood right were they are. Accept them as beautiful people and you can reject what they are doing and they can tell the difference. So think in your own head. This is not a moralistic sermon, I just want you to get in touch with that. It is very important if you are going to work with youth. They know whether you are judging them or whether you are with them in getting them help.

Let's look how they get into it. First of all, we all live with feelings. In part of our life we have pain, bad situations, mad relationships, physicals. On the other side we have euphoria, good food, good friends, good fun, whatever, but mostly we live in the normal zone because you can't live over there on the high side all the time and you can't live in pain all the time. What happens is there are thousands of chemicals out there, some legal, some illegal, that can take us from the normal zone to one of euphoria. Booze does that for us. At the cocktail party we feel a little better and then we come back to normal, no harm done. This is how it gets started. This is how youngsters get started. I have three teenage daughters. This is how they have tried some things. So the 'first stage is one of use. You learn

Let's look at What we are doing. what we can do. and what we should be doing. No matter if you are a college athletic director. a commissioner of sports. or head of a security department. there must be a policy. That policy must be effectively communicated and understood by those that you are attempting to reach. Certainly you must enforce that policy in an impartial way whether it is the star halfback. the cleanup hitter in baseball or one of the NFL's premier wide receivers. We are very much indebted to colleges allover the country because our rosters on our 28 teams are made up almost exclusively of college ball players. Those players are scouted. Those players are tested in terms of physical prowess as well as mental aplomb. They are interviewed. Different people. including their coaches. are talked to about the people and that includes not only talking about their playing ability but their reputations as good citizens and young men and young women of some moral fiber. So by going through all of these steps. our scouting staffs, our teams knowa lot about attitudes. their desires. their potential and certainly. yes. a glimpse at least of drug problems. So let me share with you if I can just a little bit about the NFL's drug program. Although certainly not a perfect one. I think that we have learned a great deal in the last few years because we have experienced a great deal. unfortunately. in terms of drug use and our players and former players being involved in drug related activities.

Let's look at another common ground. There is no right to be a college athlete. There certainly is no right to be a professional athlete. that is still a privilege. Somebody entering the National Football League with one of its clubs signs a contract and one condition to having employment with the club is that you do not use or distribute drugs. There is also a clause in that contract Which talks about the integrity issue and those types of activities that those types of conducts that are prohibitive by that club and also by the National Football League. And there is also a statement that the player signs that he is in the best physical condition possible. So we are looking at the matter purely from the legal side and I know that somewhere during your three days of meetings somebody is going to address you purely on the legal aspects of sports. But by looking at that issue certainly there are legal grounds to invalidate somebody's employment with you. But now we are passed that. We have had our little screening exercise of getting somebody on our roster. somebody to sign the contract and we. like everybody else in society. still are faced with a drug problem. a drug issue. What are the components of our program?

I might add that I think that any program you might have must have something more than just tr~atment. It must have something more than just some rules and something more than telling your athlete that if you do wrong the police will get you and you will be put in prison. However. I think that all three parts of that program are valid and all three will make up an integral realistic drug program. How do you get your message out? How do you tell people what you want them to know? We don't hide behind this but I think it is probably just a fact of life that most of the drug users in the National Football League are those who have used drugs previously Whether in cqllege. high school or somewhat lower denomination, believe it or not. junior high and sometimes grade school.

We are probably not going to be able to do as effective a job as you can do with just awareness and just educating our players with educational materials. slide presentations and whatever. We have signs we post in our locker rooms. We have inserts in their play books. and as I mentioned before. there are clauses in their contracts that have to do with the use and abuse of drugs. Certainly an athletic director is not, a coaching staff is not. nor is the security director of a professional sports league in any way shape or form constituted to be or act like a police department. That is not your function and that certainly is not my function. However. I think it behooves you to know about the subject you are talking about. I think it always helps.

You coaching staffs should know about drugs. You don't want them to be doctors. You don't want them to be amateur psychiatrists. clinical technicians and the like. but they have to know the problem, the issues and some of the behavioral symptoms. We certainly are not alone in this. although I think the degree of sophistication in protessional athletics in terms of being able to record and keep track of your performance is probably at the top of the heap. I don't think anybody in the industry. whether you are working on an assembly line or not. has the tools available to intelligently talk about your performance.

On the college level and on the professional level. practice sessions. scrimmages and games are all filmeQ. You have agility tests. you have~izzes .you have a number of things you can judge somebody's performance by. Whether coaches like it or not. in 1980 the coach has to be broader than x's and O's. I think you have to have the mechanism to deal with the area of drugs. If somebody is not performing. you should have some system as a coach to talk with that player. How many times you talk with them is a personal matter with the coach. At some point after poor performance you are going to have a confrontation. I suggest to you that among the things you might be looking at in that confrontation and what might be wrong with that athlete is that he might be a drug user.

One 0 the approaches the National Football League has used in past years was to give a lecture about drugs. Then. in a very noble gesture. indicate that if there was somebody in the audience that had a 'problem we would be in room so and so at the Holiday Inn. and would certainly welcome a cali from anybody that saw fit to call us. Coaches by nature are fairly inquisitive and we would normally get a call the next day and ask did anybody call you and our answer was almost 99.99% no. we did not get any calls.

Well. that is what I mean. We don't have any problems on this team. I think you are probably wasting your time with these lectures and let's get on to playing the game of football. How naive can you be? But the more you get into the subject of drugs and the abuse of drugs you will find that you are dealing with all time con persons. These people. particularly at the age we are talking about. have too much to lose.

They think to be honest about drugs, to be honest about their problems and to face the ultimate disgrace, certainly in their minds at that point, of no longer competing on an athletic team, whether it is a Division I school, Division II or Division III. That means a lot to that particular person. So we certainly have made available some form of medical assistance or some form of help. You must have some avenues of help open to that athlete. We told you before we do have rules, and those rules prohibit drug use. We do not condone it. There could even be a criminal violation involved. But if you are serious about a human being, a human problem, possibly somebody with a disease you will make avenues available to that person through some type of a help program.

Now we are saddled, however you might want to look at it, collective bargaining removed. Our chemical dependency program is part of the collective bargaining agreement. Yes, it certainly is a fact that we cannot spot check. We cannot spot check and have urinal analysis. However, we do have a clause in that contract which gives the team the right to administer a complete physical examination, and certainly urinalysis is part of any physical examination, to anyone who they believe or have reason to believe has a problem, a reasonable cause. There are a lot of ways to put that, but ours states reasonable cause of a problem. So you are still in the driver's seat. It still is a privilege rather than a right to play these sports. But again, we are dealing with somebody who has a high denial factor and to a head coach they are probably going to derty they have a problem they will probably deny they rteed any type of help.

In the league, we have a category called "non football injury list" so that athlete who wants to deny, who refuses to go to the doctor, can be put on this list. The list in itself does not hurt anybody, but there are two things that that list allows the team to do. First, they are no longer on the payroll and secondly they aren't going to play football again until they are either assessed or evaluated. Those two things are pretty potent to a profesional athlete, probably the former rather than the latter. Most people like to get paid for what they are doing. And certainly with the salaries they command they like the money and they usually need the money. So we don't have too many problems in people not doing what we like them to do. So we have them evaluated. We have them assessed and as the previous speakers have indicated to you, there are things called in-patient treatment and also out-patient treatment. That is the doctor's problem. They have to judge that. There are no magic formulas where there are 28 days in an in-patient treatment facility or an extensive out-patient time. But we certainly have learned that the in-patient treatment period is fine. It is a period of readjustment. It is a period for them to get their lives looked at, at least if not in order but the guts of the program. The guts of the treatment is when you step away from that facility. That is normally called out-patient treatment, If you do not have a well-monitored program where you require your athlete to do what he is supposed to do; if he is supposed to go to two meetings; if he is supposed to attend some lectures; if he is supposed to do some time in a hospital for other people, if he doesn't do these things and you allow him because he is an athlete to get away with it, your whole program will go down the drain. As we stated before, these are con people. They will try to get away with what they can. Even though you are dealing with a diseased person and they are in a stage of rehabilitation and a state of treatment, they have to be responsible for their actions. So to discipline somebody for not following through in their after care might very well mean he is going to miss the next game or be punished by the coach. That is all very legitimate and all part of a good program because you are still in the driver's seat.

Then of course, there are those situations, limited as they might be, where one of your athletes is actually involved in some criminal activity. Usage is just secondary. What he is concerned about is making money. He is selling drugs. This is where I would step inside and let some other professional type people come in. That is what law enforcement people get paid for. You are not helping the athlete. You are not helping your school. You are not helping your program by trying to cover up or otherwise counsel somebody that is in that category. Let the FBI do their thing. Let the DEA, state poLice, your local enforcement people do their job.

Finally, let me talk just a minute about how the areas of drug abuse and gambling somehow come together. Back in the 60s, the individuals who were involved in the drug traffickin~ were a very separate group from those involved in any gambling activities. The organized crime people ordinarily had a hold on gambling activities throughout the country. There was an unwritten code among those people that drugs were a dirty business and they would stay away from that. Today that is true. You have got some young Turks that are now in organized crime. They are money hungry. They like power, so the same person that is involved in taking your wager could very well be involved in selling you drugs. Again, I think this is important because not only in professional sports but certainly in college athletics you have hangers on. You have people around your campuses, your practice fields, and your athletes that aren't always the highest types. It is probably very easy to look the other way and think it might go away. It is not. These people cannot only wreck a per~on but they can wreck your athletic program. Something is naive in drugs. We talk about the recreational user, just an occasional marijuana cigarette. Also in gambling we talk about those parlay cards that certainly won't hurt anybody. We are wrong on both scores. As you well know we have gone through some recent discoveries in terms of compulsive gambling. We had a situation just several months ago where an All-American Division II player was thrown out of school for involving himself in some gambling activities to the point where he was paying several thousand dollars a season for professional advice out of Vegas. So these things are real. They can happen on any campus. But I think with some collective efforts, led by the athletic directors, backed up by your coaching staff and supplemented by people from the medical profession, people in law enforcing communities and us working together on the collegiate level and the professional level, that we can snuff out this major problem we all face today. Thank you.

MARY ZIMMERMAN:

Thank you Warren. Are there any questions that you would like to direct to anyone? Would you go to the microphone please so that everyone can hear your question? That would be helpful. Anyone else who might have a question might get to a microphone so that we can speed it along.

FROM THE FLOOR :

I admired that trick. That was pretty good. I liked that. Doctor, this is directed toward you. Dr. Murphy, in my perception of your presentation, you briefly mentioned some of your hesitant attitudes toward drug testing and some of the aspects of drug testing and its multiple ramification. A small and growing percentage of schools that have drug testing programs or are going to implement them are dealing with a myriad of legal and technical issues such as state of the art instrumentation and right to privacy statutes. My question is what are you and the NCAA Drug Indication Committee doing to inform and to educate these administrators of athletic departments about these legal and technical problems associated with drug testing? Would you recommend an outside organization to help them in forming a drug testing program like you have at Ohio State with Heitzinger Associates and the drug and alcohol education program at Ohio State?

DR. ROBERT MURPHY:

I think the question is a broad one. I don't think I can outline any single program which is going to work in every college. I think each individual college has to face that for themselves. Drug testing as a primary tool, as long as it is used as a deterrent rather than as a method of punishing athletes, may have a real place. I have great problems with attempting to develop cops and robbers in terms of drug testing. Regardless of how you want, the kids who are not on drugs resent being tested just as much as the kids Who are on drugs. From an NCAA standpoint I might tell you briefly about what is in the plans. At the January, 1984 meeting of the NCAA, the Pac Ten proposed a resolution directing the NCAA to develop a drug testing program for consideration at the January, 1985 meeting Which we are in the process of doing. What we are proposing is that in the 85-86 season all NCAA championships should have drug testing of the first three places in the individual sports and a random sampling of another three athletes among those who are in the finals. Then we should run a full survey for all drugs. We are primarily looking for the amphetamines and the uppers which include cocaine. Because this excludes football and we specifically said you should include football, the recommendation is also that there will be an on-campus in the fall of 85 set up so that every school will be hit in a period of three years in which we will take a random sampling of certain squads. For example, we want football, track, wrestling and we also want one of the women's sports. For example, we take every fifth player on the roster and do urine testing on that individual, but testing there primarily for antibiotic steroids. Now whether we extend that into other drugs I don't know. That is the plan right now.

The drawback of the plan is twofold. From my perspective, it is terribly expensive. You are talking to do the testing of 5,000 to 8,000 urines probably $1 million and the question comes up would that money best be spent really deve~oping some educational tools, some ways to give to the colleges of this country something that they can use. The second problem I have with it is the punitive aspects which have not been dealt with yet. We are going to leave that up to the NCAA to deal with this. But if you do find drugs and they are punished either by withdrawing a championship or by losing a game, it is going to be chaos.

Even though you can say you hit every school in three years there will be chaos if that happens. So I think there are a lot of bugs in it right now and that is why we are working. As far as your question should an outside organization come in, in many instances it is very helpful. Every school needs to. I think they have enough persons on their own campuses that they can develop a cadre of people to do it. I simply want to make this statement. I do not think that one speech given at the fall of each year to all of your athletes is adequate. I think it needs an ongoing continuing program.

MARY ZIMMERMAN :

Thank you. Are there any other questions of any of our speakers? If not, thank you once again and we will see you later.